Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Rifampicin Resistance among Patients Attending General Hospital Mararaba as a Case Study

Main Article Content

B. A. Ajide
M. M. Igbabul
O. I. Kanyi

Abstract

Aims: To determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its Rifampicin resistance among patients attending General Hospital, Mararaba.

Study Design: This was a descriptive health-based research that involved clinically suspected tuberculosis patients whose sputum samples were referred to General Hospital Mararaba for diagnosis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of tuberculosis, General Hospital Mararaba Nasarawa state between May to July 2019.

Methodology: A total of 100 suspected TB patients of both male and female were included in the study. Two sputum samples from each patient were collected from these patients with sputum containers and samples were processed under level 3 biosafety cabinet by mixing with the reagent that was provided with the assay following manufacturer’s manual and thereafter, the cartridge containing this mixture was placed in the Gene Xpert machine. The processing of the sample is fully automated and takes less than two hours.

Results: An overall prevalence of 21.5% was recorded for Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a rifampicin resistance rate of 65.11% among positive patients. The highest prevalence of infection was observed among the age group of above 40 years (40.0%), males (23.9%), self-employed people (25.6%), those living in a rural environment (31.8%) and those with informal education (35.7%). There was no statistically significant relationship between the prevalence of MTB to sex, marital status, education, employment and ethnicity (P>0.05). Environment factor was however significant (p<0.05). Highest frequency for rifampicin resistance was recorded in the age group 20-29(39.2%), (64.28%) in males, rural areas (57.14%), self-employed persons (57.14%) and single people (50.0%). Age about rifampicin resistance was significant (p<0.05) while sex, occupation, environment and rural areas were not significant (p>0.05).

Conclusion: It was concluded that Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its Rif-resistance amongst patients attending General Hospital, Mararaba is comparatively high and indicative of the rate at which tuberculosis and drug resistance is still resilient despite various methods put in place to control it.

Keywords:
Prevalence, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rifampicin, resistance.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ajide, B. A., Igbabul, M. M., & Kanyi, O. I. (2019). Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Rifampicin Resistance among Patients Attending General Hospital Mararaba as a Case Study. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 1-10. Retrieved from http://journalajrid.com/index.php/AJRID/article/view/30113
Section
Original Research Article

References

Esther J, Benson MH. Rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients using GeneXpert at Livingstone Central Hospital for the year 2015: A cross-sectional explorative study. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2017;16: 55-74.

World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Report; 2014.
Available: www.who.org

Corbett EL, Watt CJ. Walker N, Maher D, Williams BG. The growing burden of tuberculosis: Global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2003;163: 1009–1021.

World Health Organization. Implementing the end TB strategy: The essentials. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2015.
Available:www.who.int

Maartens G, Wilkinson RJ. Tuberculosis. Lancet. 2007;370:2030-43.

World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis control. Surveillance, planning, financing Rep WHO/HTM/ TB/2008393geneva: World Health Organization Report; 2015b.

World Health Organization. Implementing the end TB strategy: The essentials. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2015.
Available:www.who.int

World Health Organization. What is TB? How is it treated; 2015a.

Andrews JR, Gandhi NR, Moodley P, Shah NS, Bohlken L, Moll AP. Exogenous re-infection as a cause of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug- resistant tuberculosis in rural South Africa. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2008;198(11): 1582–1589.

Van den Hof S, Tursynbayeva A, Abildaev T, Adenov M, Pak S, Ismailov S. HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: overlapping risk factors. European Repository Journal. 2015;45:567-569.

McHugh TD. Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and treatment. Wallingford, Oxford shire: CAB International. 2011;219.

World Health Organization. Consolidated action plan to prevent and combat multidrug- and extensively drug- resistant tuberculosis in the WHO European Region 2011–2015. Conpenhagen, Denmark: WHO; 2016.

Niang A, Kang YA, Lee HW. Prevalence of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance among patients seeking medical care in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria. Science Journal of Public Health. 2006; 4:66-97.

Daniel OJ, Bamidele JO, Sodeinde JK, Ekundayo AA, Salako AA. Rifampicin resitance among patients with Tuberculosis at the Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu. Annals of Health Research. 2018;4(1):53-59.

Egbe K, Ike AC, Aleruchi C. Prevalence of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance among patients seeking medical care in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria. Science Journal of Public Health. 2016; 4(3):214-218.

Singh A, Tang H, Chien CL, Walker JC. Current difficulties in the diagnosis and management of spinal tuberculosis. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1991;54:21-54.

Praveen B, Gautam, Ashwini Mishra, Santosh Kumar. Prevalence of rifampicin resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated factors among presumptive tuberculosis patients in eastern Pradesh: A cross sectional study. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018;5(6):2271-2276.

Audu ES, Gambo MS, Yakubu AA. Rifampicin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Niger Journal Basic Clinic Science. 2017; 14:21-5.

Lee JY. Diagnosis and treatment of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberc Respir Dis. 2015;78:47-55.

Liem N. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms in M. tuberculosis: An update. Arch Toxicology. 2016;90(7):1585-1604.

Juan-pablo N, Dubochet J, Griffiths G, Daffe M. Direct visualization of the outer membrane of mycobacteria and corynebacteria in their native state. J Bacteriol. 2014;11(13):765-873.