Herbominerals and Antibacterial Activities of Allium sativum L Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Kokori Bajeh Tijani
Danjuma Nuhu Muhammed
Janet I. Ejiofor
Busayo Olayinka
Abdullahi Attah Alfa

Abstract

Bacterial Meningitis (BM) is the most common serious infection of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). This research aims to determine the mineral composition and to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the Juice Extract of Allium Sativum, Ethanolic Extract of Allium Sativum and Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (JEAS, EEAS and AEAS). The collected bulbs of A. sativum (600 g) were washed and air dried under shade for 2 hours and the dry scaly outer covering was peeled-off to obtain the fresh garlic cloves which were then divided into three parts of 200 g each. These three portions were crushed separately for cold extraction. The first portion was homogenized and poured into a muslin cloth to squeeze out the juice, while second and third portions were homogenized and submerged into 500 ml of 96% ethanol and 500 ml of distilled water respectively for 24 hours and both filtered after thorough shaking. The antibacterial activity of bulbs of A. sativum juice, ethanolic and aqueous (JEAS, EEAS and AEAS) extracts as folkloric medicine against clinical isolates were determined using Agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. Distilled water, concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) were used to digest the extract, which was then heated in water bath at 90ºC and filtered to obtain the filtrate for the analytical studies for A. sativum nutritional composition and zeolite herbominerals. The micro-herbominerals with their proximate values observed pharmacologic of Silver, Manganese, Zinc, Iron and Selenium; which has biocidal properties as well as immune system to cushioning the challenges of the BM pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and phytochemical screening of the extracts were evaluated. The results obtained showed that the juice and ethanolic extracts were potent, inhibiting the growth of clinical isolates with zone of inhibition ranging from 14-36 mm. The extracts inhibited bacterial isolates in concentration dependant manner with MICs ranging 0.02-15 mg/ml and MBCs 0.04-5 mg/ml. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, carbohydrates, fats and oils, steroidal ring, saponins and terpenoids. This experimental investigation has provided the scientific validation basis for the ethnomedical use of A. sativum as a remedy to treat bacterial meningitis locally as anti-infectious agent.

Keywords:
Herbominerals, antibacterial, Allium sativum, bacterial meningitis, Sub-Saharan Africa, Kaduna State.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bajeh Tijani, K., Muhammed, D., Ejiofor, J. I., Olayinka, B., & Attah Alfa, A. (2020). Herbominerals and Antibacterial Activities of Allium sativum L Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 3(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i130116
Section
Original Research Article

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