Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRID/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Infectious Diseases’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases en-US Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases A Review on Laboratory Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis <p>Tuberculosis remains the major public health concern worldwide responsible for about 1.6 million deaths and 0.3 million co-infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) annually. <em>Mycobacterium </em>is the causative agent of tuberculosis infection and is transmitted principally through air when an infected person coughs, talks, sneezes etc. This infection can be diagnosed using different Microbiological, Molecular and Immunological techniques including, sputum smear microscopy, sputum culture, nucleic-acid amplification test (NAAT), genotyping assay, tuberculin skin test (TST), interferon-gamma release assay (IGRAs) etc. These techniques vary in sensitivity and specificity as well as the ease with which they are carried out. World Health Organisation (WHO) encourages the use of techniques that are sensitive, patient-friendly, and those which produce accurate results in any clinical setting world-wide. Hence, this review highlights smear microscopy and incorporation of more rapid and sensitive diagnostic techniques such as Gene Xpert, IGRAs and urinary antigen analysis in clinical setting in the detection of <em>Mycobacterium.</em> These techniques show high sensitivity, are less time consuming do not require a repeat for a single result,&nbsp; some are able to differentiate latent and active TB infections, and have the capacity to be&nbsp; used to screen people unable to expectorate. This review encourages the incorporation of smear microscopy, GeneXpert, IGRAs, urinary antigen analysis into routine laboratory diagnosis especially in high TB burden countries. It is believed that high level of sensitivity and less time used in producing results display by these techniques will yield reduction in mortality rate, decline in static nature of TB status and possibly zero TB 2020 proposed by WHO.</p> Mercy Okon Ekong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-23 2019-08-23 1 7 Activities of Some Ethnobotanicals from North East Nigeria, against Culicine Mosquitoes <p>Mosquito borne diseases are the major cause of economic loss due to high morbidity and mortality in Africa. Elimination of culicine vectors using ethnobotanical extracts is one of the best methods for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. The methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of five plants, <em>Azadirachta indica </em>(neem), <em>Hyptis suaveolens </em>(bush tea), <em>Eucarlyptus globulus</em> (pole wire), <em>Citrus senensis</em> (orange), and <em>Ocimumkilimanscharicum </em>(bush scent leaf), were investigated for their effectiveness in control of subfamilies <em>Culicidae </em>mosquitoes’ larvae from June 2017 to October 2017. The results showed that the mortality is concentration dependent. Mortality was recorded for both methanol and petroleum ether extracts. Higher mortalities were observed in the methanolic extracts than petroleum ether extracts. The different plant extracts showed high significant differences (p&lt; 0.05) to each other. <em>Hyptis suaveolens</em> proved to be the most effective treatment agent with 100% mortality observed at both 150 ppm and 200 ppm. The present study has demonstrated larvicidal effects, and the effects were extended pupae emerged from the different treatment which led to the low adult emergence as compared to the control.</p> J. S. Ngwamah R. S. Naphtali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 1 11 Assessing Five Years of Management of Accidental Exposure to Blood at Gao Hospital, Mali <p>Accidental exposure to blood (AEB) constitutes a risk of transmission of blood-borne viruses including HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus especially amongst health workers. This study aims to describe accidental exposure to blood and post exposure management five years after it begin at the Hospital of Gao, since 2012 there is insurrection in this area making difficult to maintain health care system. This study will help to identify gaps to fill in order to improve the prevention of blood borne pathogen infection in this hospital.</p> <p>All cases of AEB declared at the Hospital from January 1<sup>st</sup> 2007 to December 31, 2011 have been enrolled. The sociodemographic profile of victims, the circumstances of the accident, the post exposure management and the follow up of subject have been registered. Data were entered and analyzed with the SPSS software. Chi square test was used with the level of significance p&lt;0.05.</p> <p>During the 60 months of the study, an average of 124 workers were employed at the Hospital of Gao and 15 cases of accidental blood exposure were declared equal to an incidence density of 4.2 cases per 100 persons per year. Males were the most affected (60%). Nurses and lab technicians represent the majority of victims (53.3%). The most frequent type of accident was the injury by cannula needle sticks during intravenous injections (73.3%). Most of the cases received High Activity Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) within a mean delay of 25 Hours from the accident, and the regiment (AZT/3TC/LPV/r) is predominantly used. HIV serology was done in 53.3% of subjects and revealed 1 positive case. Initial blood tests in all victims were normal. The HAART observance was worst among medical doctors (p &lt; 0.001). No contaminations by HIV were detected after 6 months of follow up.</p> <p>The frequency of declared accidental exposures to blood at the Hospital of Gao is low. The post exposure management is facing a problem of observance of the treatment whenever it shows efficacy in all cases.</p> Y. Cissoko L. N. Sidibé J. P. Dembele A. A. Oumar A. Traoré A. Samaké A. A. Maïga L. Diabira D. Diarra S. Dao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 1 7 Newly Emerging Candida Specie: Should Clinicians and Mycologist be Concerned? <p>The emergence of <em>C. auris</em> as a global nosocomial pathogen associated with multidrug resistance and high mortality rates has been recently discovered. This emerging pathogen appears to be far more able to induce systemic infection and mortality than other potential multi drug resistance (MDR) yeast pathogens even though it is found to have reduced virulence factors compared to <em>C. albicans</em>. There are issues with regard to the identification of <em>C. auris </em>using both phenotypic and molecular techniques; this has raised concerns about detecting the true scale of the problem. This mini- review elucidates on the literature available on <em>C. auris </em>and highlights the mechanism of pathogenesis and antifungal resistance, which will give further direction to extensive research in this field.</p> O. F. Ashcroft A. S. Kumurya K. Mohammed M. U. Iduh A. A. Yusuf N. M. Bunza S. U. Nataala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 1 7