COVID-19 Vaccination Concerns: Perspectives of Youths in a Developing Nation's Context

Ugochukwu Samuel Aguwa *

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Nigeria.

Izuchukwu Azuka Okafor

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Nigeria and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria and Pan African University of Life and Earth Science Institute, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. d Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham, UK.

Echezona Ejike Udokanma

Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham, UK.

Ikechukwu Jude Okolie

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Okonkwo David Izuchukwu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Felix Ovie Ogbo

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Gregory University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

Chioma Dorothy Nwosu

Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.

Adline Uchechi Aguwa

Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Vaccine programmes' success lies in the acceptability and understanding of vaccine concerns among diverse population groups. This study investigates the covid-19 vaccination concerns among Nigerian youths.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 631 youths (343 females and 270 males) between 15-44 years who were randomly recruited online and offline from the six geo-political regions of Nigeria. The questionnaire was administered between 10 February and 15 March 2021. SPSS (Chi-square and Cramer's V Statistic) was used to determine the association (p<0.05)between covid-19 vaccination concerns and participants' demographic characteristics.

Results: Among the 12 identified covid-19 vaccination concerns, side-effects (p=0.037), not necessary (p=0.007), negative reaction to vaccines (p=0.026) and assumed non-exposure to covid-19 patients (p=0.004),, were statistically associated with gender. For age, efficacy doubt (p=0.023), political/economic construct (p=0.023), family disapproval (p=0.018), and non-exposure to covid-19 patients (p=0.000) were statistically significant. Efficacy doubt (p=0.029) and the vaccine is a hoax (p=0.020) were associated with marital status. Side effect (p=0.182), a mere human experiment (p=0.777), doubt on efficacy (p=0.305), not necessary (p=0.457), political/economic construct (p=0.673), negative reaction to vaccine (p=0.162), and the vaccine may not be affordable (p=0.506) were not associated with the occupation. For the level of education, side effects (p=0.140), a mere human experiment (p=0.580), efficacy doubt (p=0.243), and negative reaction to the vaccine (p=0.386).

Conclusion: Amongst youths in developing nations, especially in institutions of learning, health promotion and vaccine advocacy strategies should be intensified. The strategies should incorporate reinstating trust in vaccine efficacy and education and target youths and their family health decision-makers.  

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine, coronavirus, vaccine concerns, vaccine advocacy, developing nations, Nigeria

How to Cite

Samuel Aguwa, U., Azuka Okafor, I., Ejike Udokanma, E., Jude Okolie, I., David Izuchukwu, O., Ovie Ogbo, F., Dorothy Nwosu, C., & Uchechi Aguwa, A. (2023). COVID-19 Vaccination Concerns: Perspectives of Youths in a Developing Nation’s Context. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 12(2), 7–21.


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