Overview of Respiratory Tract Infections among Children under Five Years in Ghana
Issue: 2023 - Volume 14 [Issue 3]
Augustina Ampah *
Livingstone International University for Tourism Excellence & Business Management, (LIUTEBM), Lusaka Zambia, Zambia.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
It is well-documented that respiratory tract infections, especially in children, have the highest incidence and mortality rates in developing countries. Infections of the sinuses, throat, airways, and lungs are collectively referred to as Respiratory Tract Infections by the National Health Services (NHS). According to the statistics, in Ghana, the seasonal patterns of reported paediatric cases were different in the Northern sector than in the Central and Southern sectors. Hospitalization rates for children in the Volta Region showed clear seasonal trends, with most ailments being more common during the dry seasons than the wet ones. The purpose of this study is to examine respiratory tract infections among children under five years in Ghana. This will give readers and policy makers the nature and the condition of RTIs among children in Ghana. The study used the systematic review method to achieve this objective. The type of systematic review method used was the rapid review, which uses existing research documents and data to draw new findings.
The study found that, there is high rate of respiratory tract infections among children in Ghana. This is attributed to many factors. Poor breastfeeding and supplemented eating in early life may lead to childhood wasting, the leading cause of mortality in under-5s with poorer RTI worldwide. Severe acute malnutrition is one of numerous socioeconomic variables that have increased pneumonia, diarrheal illness, and malaria prevalence and severity. Other variables that have contributed to this rise including low birth weight, under-vaccination, parental smoking, early childhood respiratory impairment owing to indoor air pollution, other diseases, and overcrowding.
This study recommends that, much attentions should be given to children in Ghana. Prevention strategies for RTIs include frequent nutritional programs, campaigns, and education in the district to address stunting and underweight in children younger than five, as well as correct complementary feeding. Further population-based study in different parts of Ghana might strengthen these results.
Keywords: Respiratory tract infection, children, Ghana
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