Medications, Healthcare Workers and Laboratory Capabilities to Manage HIV Infection among Children from 10 Districts of Indonesia

Main Article Content

Max Joseph Herman
Siti Masitoh
Rini Sasanti Handayani


Aims: To identify the availability of Medications, Healthcare Workers and Laboratory Capabilities to manage HIV infection among children from 10 Districts of Indonesia to inform efforts to improve healthcare.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Five provinces with the greatest number of People Living With HIV/ADS (PLWHA) in Indonesia: Jakarta, East Java, Bali, Papua and North Sumatera, between May and July 2015.

Methodology: Study subjects were parents/caregivers of children living with HIV/AIDS CLWHA) The number of subjects was calculated by estimating a population proportion with absolute precision, excluding those that cannot communicate well and of CLWHA who lived independently. 267 respondents were taken proportionately from each district. This descriptive study was conducted by using pre-test questionnaires and checklists to observe the availability of ARV and OI medication, medical devices and laboratory reagents.

Results: Data of 239 parents/caregivers out of 267 can be analyzed concerning their perception of the availability of ARVs and laboratory equipment. They are primarily their own parents (65.7%), more than half up to junior high school graduate (52.7%). The availability of medications at some hospitals are limited or unavailable. Nurses are still lacking and many who have not been trained. The comprehensiveness of the laboratory equipment and capabilities is still insufficient. The viral loads can only be examined in one hospital and CD4 cannot be counted in several hospitals. The availability of reagents is also very limited. There is no relation between respondents’ perception of the availability of ARVs and of the completeness of laboratory equipment with their education level (p>0.05).

Conclusion: The availability of medications for HIV/AIDS must be assured and the number of trained nurses still need to be increased.

Children, anti retro viral, health workers, laboratory, HIV infection, Indonesia.

Article Details

How to Cite
Herman, M. J., Masitoh, S., & Handayani, R. S. (2020). Medications, Healthcare Workers and Laboratory Capabilities to Manage HIV Infection among Children from 10 Districts of Indonesia. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 3(3), 1-14.
Original Research Article


Unicef Indonesia. Ringkasan Kajian Respon terhadap HIV & AIDS. Jakarta: UNICEF Indonesia; 2012.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Ditjen PP&PL. Statistik HIV AIDS sampai September 2013. In: Ditjen PP&PL, editor. Jakarta; 2013.

Republik Indonesia. Undang-Undang RI No. 23 Tahun 2002 tentang Perlindungan Anak. Retrieved Juny. 2013;7:2018.

Lallemant M, Chang S, Cohen R, Pecoul B. Pediatric HIV—A neglected disease? New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;365(7):581-3.

Departemen Kesehatan Republic Indonesia Ditjen Binfar dan Alkes Pedoman Pelayanan Kefarmasian Untuk Orang Dengan HIV/AIDS (ODHA). Jakarta: Badan Litbangkes, Depkes RI; 2006.

Muktiarti D, Akib AA, Munasir Z, Kurniati N. Terapi antiretroviral lini kedua pada HIV anak di RS. Cipto Mangunkusumo. Sari Pediatri. 2016;14(2):130-6.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Ditjen PP&PL. Pembiayaan AIDS, TB dan Malaria (ATM) “Menyongsong BPJS 2014 Warta Tuberkulosis Indonesia. 2013;23 (April 2013-23/IV/2013), .pp. 1–8.

WHO. Towards universal access Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector; 2009.

Tjandra Yoga. Ditjen PP&PL Situasi Epidemiologi HIV/AIDS di Indonesia; 2012.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Badan Litbangkes Kemenkes RI. Laporan Akhir Riset Fasilitas Kesehatan tahun 2011. Jakarta; 2011.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 328 Tahun 2013 Tentang Formularium Nasional. In: Kemenerian Kesehatan RI, editor. Jakarta; 2013.

Kurniati N. Pedoman penerapan terapi HIV pada anak. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2014;48-9.

Susyanty AL, Handayani RS, Sugiharti S. Keterjangkauan Biaya untuk Mendapatkan Pengobatan pada Anak dengan HIV AIDS dan Infeksi Oportunistik. Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. 2017; 27(3):161-8.

Mujiati M, Lestary H, Sugiharti S. Kecukupan tenaga kesehatan dan permasalahannya dalam pelayanan kesehatan anak dengan HIV-AIDS di Rumah Sakit pada Sepuluh Kabupaten/Kota, Indonesia. Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. 2017;27(1):1-8.

Burhan R. Pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan oleh perempuan terinfeksi HIV/AIDS. Kesmas: National Public Health Journal. 2013;8(1):33-8.

Coovadia A, Abrams EJ, Stehlau R, Meyers T, Martens L, Sherman G, et al. Reuse of nevirapine in exposed HIV-infected children after protease inhibitor–based viral suppression: A randomized controlled trial. Jama. 2010;304(10):1082-90.

Waning B, Diedrichsen E, Jambert E, Bärnighausen T, Li Y, Pouw M, et al. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: Analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children. BMC pediatrics. 2010;10(1):74.

The Epidemiology of Pediatric HIV Infection in Management of Pediatric HIV Infection [database on the Internet]; 2005.

WHO. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in infants and children: towards universal access. World Health Organization: Geneva; 2010.
Available: [PubMed]

Wolfe WR, Weiser SD, Leiter K, Steward WT, Percy-de Korte F, Phaladze N, et al. The impact of universal access to antiretroviral therapy on HIV stigma in Botswana. American Journal of Public Health. 2008;98(10):1865-71.

Suriyani, Mappeaty Nyorong, Natzir S. Faktor pendorong terhadap pemanfaatan layanan VCT HIV & AIDS di Kabupaten Jayapura, Makassar: Bagian Promosi Kesehatan Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar; 2014.

Kemenkes RI. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan RI No 451 Tahun 2012 tentang Rumah Sakit Rujukan Bagi Orang Dengan HIV dan AIDS. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2012.

Tabler M, Scammon M, Debra L, Kim J, Farrell M, Tomoaia-Cotisel M, et al. Patient care experiences and perceptions of the patient-provider relationship: A mixed method study. Patient Experience Journal. 2014;1(1):75-87.

Sugiharti S, Lestary H. Bagaimana Kebijakan Pemerintah Daerah di Provinsi Jawa Barat Dalam Implementasi Layanan Pencegahan Penularan HIV-AIDS dari Ibu ke Anak (PPIA). Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan. 2016; 44(4):253-64.