Pharmacotherapeutic Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic) Bulb against Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria

Main Article Content

Augustine I. Airaodion
Ada C. Ngwogu
Kenneth O. Ngwogu
John A. Ekenjoku
Anthony U. Megwas


Background: Emergence of methicillin drug resistance is evident and has become a global challenge. Seeking for alternative antibiotics that are new, natural, plant based, cost effective and less toxic is the recent task for global health.

Aim: This study is aimed at assessing the pharmacotherapeutic activity of Allium sativum (Garlic) bulb against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Materials and Methods: Fresh A. sativum bulbs were purchased from a local market in Ibadan, Nigeria and were identified by a botanist. They were cut into small pieces and mashed in a laboratory with a mortar and pestle and the fluid squeezed out of the resultant slurry. The antibacterial activity of the juice was determined by diffusion method. Nutrient agar medium was prepared using standard method. Pure cultures of Coliform bacillus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus viridians, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli were obtained from the Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University of AgricultureAbeokuta, Nigeria. The juices were serially diluted to obtain 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.25% and 0.125% solutions in sterile test tubes. Sterilized 9 mm filter paper disc soaked in the diluted juice were placed on the plate and incubated for 24 hours at room temperature. The plates were examined for clear zones of inhibition. Presence of zones of inhibition indicated activity.

Results: The results showed that A. sativum bulb has antibacterial potential against all the bacteria used in this study and also exhibited inhibitory activity against them.

Conclusion: The result of this present study showed that A. sativum juice has high range of antibacterial potential against both gram positive (S. epidemidis and S. viridans) and gram negative bacteria (C. bacillus, E. coli and S. typhi). However, the extract has a greater inhibitory activity against gram positive bacteria than gram negative bacteria.

Allium sativum, C. bacillus, E. coli, S. epidemidis, S. typhi, S. viridians.

Article Details

How to Cite
Airaodion, A. I., Ngwogu, A. C., Ngwogu, K. O., Ekenjoku, J. A., & Megwas, A. U. (2020). Pharmacotherapeutic Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic) Bulb against Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 3(3), 22-27.
Original Research Article


Timothy O, Idu M. Preliminary phytochemistry and in vitro antimicrobial properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of Icacinatrichantha. Oliv. Leaf. 2011;1(3):184–188.

Sofowora EA. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons, U.S.A. 1982;10–40.

Balandrin MF, Kjocke AJ, Wurtele ES, Bollinger WH. Natural plant chemicals

sources of industrial and mechanical materials. Science. 1985;228:1154–1160.

Bibitha B, Jisha VK, Salitha CV, Mohan S, Valsa AK. Antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts. Short Communication. Indian Journal Microbiology. 2002;42:361–363.

Lawson LD. Garlic: A review of its medicinal effects andindicated active compounds. In Lawson LD, Bauer R (ed.), Phytomedicines of Europe: their chemistry and biologicalactivity. ACS Symposium Series, no. 691. American ChemicalSociety, Washington, DC. 1998; 176-209.

Rees LP, Minney SF, Plummer NT, Slater JH, Skyrme DA. Aquantitative assessment of the antimicrobial activity of garlic (Allium sativum). World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 1993;9:303-307.

Adetumbi M, Javor GT, Lau BH. Allium sativum (Garlic) inhibitslipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 1986;30:499-501.

Weber ND, Anderson DO, North JA, Murray BK, Lawson LD. In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) extract and compounds. Planta Med. 1992;58: 417-423.

Daka D. Antibacterial effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on staphylococcus aureus: An in vitro study. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10:666-669.

Nabeel H, Sahid A, Naveed M, Muhammad S. An estimationof technical efficiency of garlic production in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economic. 2014;2:169-178.

Jehan B, Muhammad T, Huma A, Amjad I, Mohammad S. Effect of different solvent extracted sample of Allium sativum (Linn.) on bacteria and fungi. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10:5910-5915.

Onyeagba RA, Ugbogu OC, Okeke CU, Iroakasi O. Studieson the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn). African Journal of Biotechnology. 2004;3:552-554.

Shaloo V, Sopreet K, Joginder S, Akshay G. Antibacterial effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract on different pathogenicand non-pathogenic bacteria. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2015; 6:1103.

Nagori BP, Solanki R, Sharma N. Natural healing agent: Garlic,an approach healthy life. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. 2010; 1: 358-366.

Al-Qattan MM. Garlic burns: case reported with an emphasison associated and underling pathology. Burns 2009;35:300-302.

WHO. Guidelines on safety monitoring of herbal medicines in pharmacovigilance system; 2004.

Duguid JP, Marmoid BP, Swain RHA. Mackie and McCartney’s Medicinal Microbiology. 13th edition. Churchill Livingstone, London. 1989;1:163.

Taiwo EN. Antibacterial activity and medicinal properties of paw paw (Carica papaya). Global Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2010;9(1&2):81-83.

Kafaru E. Immense Help from natives workshop, 1st Ed, Elizabeth Kafaru, Lagos, Nigeria. 1994;11-14.

Anibijuwono II, Udeze AO. Antimicrobial activity of papaya on some pathogenic

organisms of clinical origin from south-western Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2009;13:850–864.

Wolde T, Kuma H, Trueha K, Yabeker A. Anti-bacterial activity of garlic extract against human pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Pharmacovigilance. 2018;6(1): 1-5.

Ogunjobi AA, Elizabeth OT. Comparative study of antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts of the bark and seed of Garcinia kola and Carica papaya. African Journal of Biomedicine Research. 2011;14:147– 152.

AiraodionAI, Ekenjoku JA,Akaninyene IU, Ngwogu KO, Ngwogu AC. Antibacterial potential of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Carica papaya leaves. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2020;3(2):1-6.

Barnett R. Typhoid fever. Lancet. 2016; 388(10059):2467.

Nkang AO, Okonko IO, Mejeha OK, Adewale GO, Udeze AO. Assessment of antibiotics susceptibility profiles of someselected clinical isolates from laboratories in Nigeria. Journal Microbiologyand Antimicrobials. 2009;1: 19-26.

Andrew JM. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2002;49(6): 1049-1056.

Joana M, Ana CA, Anabela B, Lucia CS, Manuel S. Antimicrobialactivity of selected photochemical against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and their bioflms. Pathogens. 2014;3:473-498.