Seropositivity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Intending Blood Donors in Rivers State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

B. A. Abeni
N. Frank- Peterside
O. E. Agbagwa
S. A. Adewuyi
T. I. Cookey
I. O. Okonko


Aims: Provision of constant and safe blood has been a public health challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa with a high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among prospective blood donors at two Hospitals (government and private-owned) in Rivers State, and also to relate some demographic studies to the screening results.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Two Hospitals (a government-owned and private-owned) in Rivers State, Nigeria, between January 2018 and April 2019.

Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-two (185 males and 97 females) blood donors were recruited for this study. Sera samples were screened for antibodies to HIV-1 and -2 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based kits following the manufacturer’s description.

Results: Of the 282 screened prospective donors (males and females) in this study, the overall prevalence of HIV from both hospitals was 6.0% with a seronegativity of 94.0%. There was a significant relationship (p <0.05) between the overall seroprevalence of HIV concerning gender (p-0.006) all other demographics had no significant association with HIV. Age group 21-30 had the highest prevalence of HIV (53.80%). Donors with tertiary education had the highest prevalence rate (52.90%) of HIV. About marital status, the unmarried donors had higher HIV prevalence (64.70%) when compared with the married donors (35.30%). However, family donors had the highest prevalence of HIV (52.90%). Finally, concerning occupation, students had a higher HIV prevalence (47.10%).

Conclusion: The seroprevalence of HIV in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria was high. This shows that HIV remains a threat to safe blood transfusion and public health in Nigeria. Strict adherence to selection criteria and algorithm of donor screening is hereby advocated.

Blood donors, HIV, seroprevalence, Rivers State, Nigeria

Article Details

How to Cite
Abeni, B. A., Peterside, N. F.-, Agbagwa, O. E., Adewuyi, S. A., Cookey, T. I., & Okonko, I. O. (2020). Seropositivity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Intending Blood Donors in Rivers State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 22-29.
Original Research Article


Tessema B, Yismaw G, Kassu A, et al. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors at Gondar University teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: Declining trends over a period of five years. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:111.

Okoroiwu HU, Okafor IM., Asemota EA, Okpokam DC. Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (HBV, HCV, syphilis and HIV) among prospective blood donors in a tertiary health care facility in Calabar, Nigeria; An eleven years evaluation. BMC Public Health. 2018;645.

World Health Organization. Blood safety strategy for the African region. Brazzaville: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFR /RC51/9 Rev.1); 2002.

Doitsh G, Greene WC. Dissecting how CD4 T cells are lost during HIV infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;19(3):280-291.

UNAIDS. Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva, Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS; 2002. [Internet].


[Accessed June 12, 2020]

Abate M, Wolde T. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis among blood donors at Jigjiga blood bank, Eastern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2016;26(2):153-60.

DOI: 10.4314/ejhs.v26i2.9

PMID: 27222628; PMCID: PMC4864344.

Shepard RN, Schock J, Robertson K. Quantitation immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in different biological compartments. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2000;38: 1414-1418.

Campo J, Prearea MA, Del Romero J, Cano J, Hernando V, Bascones A. Oral transmission of HIV, reality or fiction? An update. Oral Diseases. 2006;12(3):219 228.

Chaillon A, Gianella S, Wertheim JO, Richman DD, Mehta SR, Smith DM. HIV migration between blood and cerebrospinal fluid or semen over time. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2014;09(10):1642-1652.

Macfarlane SB. Conducting a Descriptive Survey: 2. Choosing a Sampling Strategy. Trop. Doctor. 1997;27(1):14-21.

Nigeria HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey (NAIIS). South-South zone summary sheet; 2019.

Available: [Accessed July 8, 2020]

Niang L, Winn T, Rusli BN. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence. Studies Archives of Orofacial Sciences. 2006;1:9–14.

World Health Organization. Global Epidemic: People Living with HIV by WHO region 2019; 2020.


[Accessed July 7, 2020]

Erhabor O, Usman I, Wase A. Prevalence of transfusion-transmissible HIV infection in Sokoto, northwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology. 2014;1:36–42.

Imoru M, Eke C, Adegoke A. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among blood donors in Kano state, Nigeria. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science. 2003;12:59–63.

Chukwurah EF, Nneli RO. Prevalence of transfusion transmissible infectious disease markers among blood donors in a south Eastern state of Nigeria. Nigeria Biomedical Science Journal. 2005;1:114–117.

Hassan A, Mukhtar HM, Mamman AI, Ahmed AJ, Isa AH, Babadoko AA. The incidence of HIV among blood donors in Kaduna, Nigeria. African Health Sciences. 2008;8(1):546-533.

Amadi AN, Mba LE. Distribution of HIV infection in Abia State, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Medical Investigation Practices. 2001;2:38–40.

Onakewhor JUE, Offor E, Okonofua FE. Maternal and neonatal seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2009;21(6):583-586.

Walana W, Ahiaba S, Hokey P, Vicar EK, Acquah SEK, Der EM. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kintampo municipal hospitals, Ghana. Br Microbiology Resource Journal. 2014;12: 1491–9.

Yusuf M, Alemayehu B. Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infection among blood donors of Jijiga blood bank, East Ethiopia; Retrospective 4 years’ study. Biomedical Centre Resource Notes. 2016; 9:129.

Nagalo MB, Sanou M, Bisseye C, Kaboré MI, Nebie YK, Kienou K. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C virus and syphilis among blood donors in Koudougou (Burkina Faso) in 2009. Blood Transfusion. 2011;9:412-419.

Okocha EC, Aneke JC, Ezeh TU, Ibeh NC, Nwosu GA, Okorie IO. The epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. African Journal of Medical Health Science. 2015;14:125–129.

Kassim OD, Oyekale TO, Aneke JC, Durosinmi MA. Prevalence of seropositive blood donors for hepatitis B, C and HIV viruses at the Federal Medical Centre, Ado-Ekiti Nigeria. Annual Tropical Pathology. 2012;3:47–55.

Unnikrishnan B, Rao P, Kumar N, Gati S, Prasad R, Armarnath A. Profile of blood donors and reasons for deferral in coastal South India. Australian Medical Journal. 2011;4(7):379–85.

Zaheer HA, Saeed U, Waheed Y, Karimi S, Waheed U. Prevalence and trends of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Islamabad, Pakistan 2005-2013. Journal of Blood Disorders Transfusion. 2014;5(6):1–5.

Noubiap JJ, Joko WY, Nansseu JRN, Tene UG, Siaka C. Seroepidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C virus and syphilis infections among first-time donors in Edea, Cameroon. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2013;17(10):832–7.

Birhaneselassie M. Prevalence of transfusion transmissible infections in donors in Ethiopian blood bank between 2009 and 2013 and donation factors that would improve the safety of the blood supply in underdeveloped countries. Lab Medicine. 2016;47(2):134–9.

Alvarado-Esquivel C, Rascon-Careaga A, Liesenfeld O. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in healthy blood donors: A cross-sectional study in senora, Mexico. Biomed Res Int. 2016;9597276:8

Ola SO, Jaiyesimi AEA, Olusanya OO. Co-infection of HIV and HBV among Nigerian patients and blood donors at Sagamu. Nigeria Medical Journal. 2005; 46(3):64-67.

Baba MM, Hassan AW, Gashau W. Prevalence of hepatitis B antigenaemia and human immunodeficiency virus in blood donors in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Medicine. 2010;9:10–12.

Ejele OA, Erhabor O, Nwauche CA. Trends in the prevalence of some transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Haematology. 2005;8:273–277.

Buseri FI, Muhibi MA, Jeremiah JA. Sero-epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infectious diseases among blood donors in Osogbo, South-West Nigeria. Blood Transfusion. 2009;7(4):293-299.

Bani M, Giussani B. Gender differences in giving blood: A review of literature. Blood Transfusion. 2010;8:278–87.

Shaz BH, James AB, Hillyer KL, Shrelber GB, Hillyer CD. Demographic patterns of blood donors in and donations in a large metropolitan area. Journal of National Medical Association. 2011;103:351–357.

Damulak OD, Bolorunduro SO, Boman F, Bako, L. Pattern of blood donors in Jos. Jos Journal of Medicine. 2011;5(5): 44–45.