Main Article Content
Malaria is a life threatening infectious disease that has affected economic development in many parts of the world. Although preventable, malaria has claimed the lives of thousands of individuals in endemic African countries. Antimalarial drug resistance, lack of vaccines in clinical use as well as complexities of malaria parasite genomes remains a serious threat to malaria eradication efforts. The search for antimalarials from plant sources has yield significant success in drug discovery approaches. The specific objective of this study is to establish the acute toxic effect and antiplasmodial efficacy of crude methanolic leaf extract of Senna occidentalis in an in vivo assay. The four (4) days suppressive test was used in Swiss mice experimentally infected with chloroquine sensitive (CQS) Plasmodium berghei (ANKA). Results obtained revealed no lethality nor any sign of acute toxic reactions following the administration of 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract. Percent reduction of parasite growth obtained was observed to be dose dependent in all groups treated with the herbal extract and ranges between 66% and 73%. Relative to the negative and positive control groups, a significant reduction in parasitaemia (P≤ 0.01) was observed in all groups treated with the plant extracts. A gradual increase in body weight was observed in extract treated groups throughout the period of the investigation. The antiplasmodial efficacy observed may well be attributed to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and other important phytochemicals present. S. occidentalis is therefore, considered a good candidate source for development of novel antimalarial drugs.
Service M. Medical entomology for students. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008. Online ISBN: 9780511811012.
White NJ, Pukrittayakamee S, Hien TT, Abul Faiz M, Mokuolu OA, Dondorp AM. Malaria. The Lancet. 2014;383:723-735.
Dawaki S, Al Mekhlafi HM, Ithoi I, Ibrahim J, Atroosh WM, Abdulsalam AM, et al. Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria? Prevalence, risk factors and KAP assessment among Hausa communities in Kano State. Malaria Journal. 2016;15:351-354.
Ahuru R. Economic burden of malaria: Evidence from Nigeria's data. Amity Journal of Healthcare Management. 2018;3(1):28-39.
Madaki MJ. The effects of malaria on crop production in Yobe State, Nigeria. International Journal of Information Research and Review. 2017;4(1):3525-3529.
Dondorp AM, Nosten F, Yi P, Das D, Phyo AP, Tarning J, et al. Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009;361:455-467.
Ajala TO, Igwilo CI, Oreagba IA, Odeku OA. The antiplasmodial effect of the extracts and formulated capsules of Phyllanthus amarus on Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2011;4(4):283-287.
Adebayo JO, Krettli AU. Potential antimalarials from Nigerian plants: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;133(2):289-302.
Lawal B, Shittu OK, Kabiru AY, Jigam AA, Umar MB, Berinyuy EB, Alozi BU. Potential antimalarials from African natural products: A review. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology. 2015;4(4):318-343.
Sofowora A, Ogunbodede E, Onayade A. Role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;10(5):210-229.
Nuhu AA, Aliyu R. Effects of Cassia occidentalis aqueous leaf extract on biochemical markers of tissue damage in rats. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008;7(4):1137-1142.
Kankara SS, Ibrahim MH, Mustafa M, Go R. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for traditional maternal healthcare in Katsina State, Nigeria. South African Journal of Botany. 2015;97:165-175.
Murugan K, Aarthi N, Kovendan K, Panneerselvam C, Chandramohan B, Kumar PM, et al. Mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity of Senna occidentalis (Cassiae) and Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Maruthamalai hills against Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitology Research. 2015;114:3657–3664.
Ibrahim MA, Aliyu AB, Sallau AB, Bashir M, Yunusa I, Umar TS. Senna occidentalis leaf extract possesses antitrypanosomal activity and ameliorates the trypanosome-induced anemia and organ damage. Pharmacognosy Research. 2010;2(3):175–180.
Odeja OO, Obi G, Ogwuche CE, Elemike EE, Oderinlo OO. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Senna occidentalis (L.) leaves. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2014;2(4):26-30.
Alakshmi VS, Ranjitha J, Rajeswari DV, Bhagiyalakshmi M. Pharmacological profile of Cassia occidentalis L: A review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;5(3):29-33.
Kayembe JS, Taba KM, Ntumba K, Tshiongo MT, Kazadi TK. In vitro anti-malarial activity of 20 quinones isolated from four plants used by traditional healers in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010;4(11):991-994.
Tona L, Cimanga RK, Mesia K, Musuamba CT, Bruyne TD, Apers S, et al. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;93:27–32.
Tona LM, Ngimbi NP, Okond’ahoka CB, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, et al. In vivo antimalarial activity of Cassia occidentalis, Morinda morindoides and Phyllanthus niruri. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2001;95(1):47-57.
Tona L, Ngimbi NP, Tsakala M, Mesia K, Cimanga K, Apers S, et al. Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999;68:193–203.
Daskum AM, Chessed G, Qadeer MA, Ling LY. Phytochemical screening, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) and in vitro antiplasmodial analysis of Senna siamea leaves as antimalarial, Yobe State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2020;41(1):60-67.
Mojarrab M, Shiravand A, Delazar A, Afshar FH. Evaluation of in vitro antimalarial activity of different extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and fractions of the most potent extracts. The Scientific World Journal. 2014;1-6.
Daskum AM, Godly C, Muhammad AQ, Ling LY. Effect of Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae) leaves extract on the formation of β-hematin and evaluation of in vitro antimalarial activity. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2019;7(3):46-51.
Senguttuvan J, Paulsamy S, Karthika K. Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of leaf and root parts of the medicinal herb, Hypochaeris radicata L. for in vitro antioxidant activities. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2014;4(1):359-367.
Yusuf AZ, Zakir A, Shemau Z, Abdullahi M, Halima SA. Phytochemical analysis of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata linn. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy. 2014;6(2):10-16.
Bukar A, Mukhtar MD, Hassan AS. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Senna siamea (lam) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2009;1(2):139-142.
Pandey S, Pandey R, Singh R. Phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plant Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract, Area of research; Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(6):1-6.
Kumar SR, Venkateshwar C, Samuel G, Rao GS. Phytochemical screening of some compounds from plant leaf extracts of Holoptelea integrifolia (Planch.) and Celestrus emarginata (Grah.) used by Gondu tribes at Adilabad District, Andhrapradesh, India. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention. 2013;2(8):65-70.
OECD. Guidance document on acute oral toxicity testing. Environmental Health and Safety Monograph Series on Testing and Assessment No 24; 2001.
Jimenez-Diaz MB, Viera S, Fernndez-Alvaro E, Angulo-Barturen I. Animal models of efficacy to accelerate drug discovery in malaria. Parasitology. 2014;141:93–103.
Asnake S, Teklehaymanot T, Hymete A, Erko B, Giday M. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants in southern Ethiopia. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;15:448.
Peter W, Portus H, Robinson L. The four-day suppressive in vivo antimalarial test. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1975;69:155–171.
Huang BW, Pearman E, Kim CC. Mouse models of uncomplicated and fatal malaria. Bio Protocols. 2015;5(13).
Mohammed T, Erko B, Giday M. Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of leaves of Acocanthera schimperi and Croton macrostachyus against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;14(314):1-10.
Orman E, Addo P, Ofori MF, Adosraku RK. Investigating the in-vivo antiplasmodial properties of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) leaves. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015;5(6):419-430.
Chang ZW, Malleret B, Russell B, Rénia L, Claser C. Ex vivo maturation assay for testing antimalarial sensitivity of rodent malaria parasites. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2016;60(11):6859-6866.
Fentahun S, Makonnen E, Awas T, Giday M. In vivo antimalarial activity of crude extracts and solvent fractions of leaves of Strychnos mitis in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017;17(13):1-12.
Somsak V, Borkaew P, Klubsri C, Dondee K, Bootprom P, Saiphet B. Antimalarial properties of aqueous crude extracts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Moringa oleifera leaves in combination with artesunate in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Journal of Tropical Medicine; 2016.
Idowu ET, Ajaegbu HC, Omotayo AI, Aina OO, Otubanjo OA. In vivo anti-plasmodial activities and toxic impacts of lime extract of a combination of Picralima nitida, Alstonia boonei and Gongronema latifolium in mice infected with Chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei. African Health Sciences. 2015;15(4):1262-1270.
Bantie L, Assefa S, Teklehaimanot T, Engidawork E. In vivo antimalarial activity of the crude leaf extract and solvent fractions of Croton macrostachyus Hocsht. (Euphorbiaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in Mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;14(79):1-10.
Moll K, Ljungström I, Perlmann H, Scherf A, Wahlgren M. Methods in Malaria Research (Fifth Ed.). (K. Moll, I. Ljungström, H. Perlmann, A. Scherf, & M. Wahlgren, Eds.) Manassas: University Boulevard, Manassas; 2008.
Daskum AM, Chessed G, Qadeer MA. Antiplasmodial activities of crude Moringa oleifera leaves extracts on chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (3D7). Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2019;12(1):315-320.
Ibrahim AM, Lawal B, Tsado NA, Yusuf AA, Jimoh AM. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS determination of bioactive constituents from methanol leaf extract of Senna occidentalis. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 2015;3(12):992-995.
Fonseca-Silva F, Inacio JD, Canto-Cavalheiro MM, Almeida-Amaral EE. Reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to quercetin induced death in Leishmania amazonensis. PLOS ONE. 2011;4(3):114-121.
Percário S, Moreira DR, Gomes BA, Ferreira ME, Gonçalves AM, Laurindo PS, et al. Oxidative stress in malaria. International Joural of Molecular Science. 2012;13:16346-16372.
Nwaehujor CO, Ode OJ, Okoye DN. The hepatoprotective effect of Senna occidentalis methanol leaf extract against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2011;6(7):637-646.
Silva MG, Aragao TP, Vasconcelos CF, Ferreira PA, Andrade BA, Costa IM, et al. Acute and subacute toxicity of Cassia occidentalis L. stem and leaf in Wistar Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;136:341-346.
Mulisa E, Girma B, Tesema S, Yohannes M, Zemene E, Amelo W. Evaluation of in vivo antimalarial activities of leaves of Moringa oleifera against Plasmodium berghei in Mice. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products. 2018;13(1):1-5.
Onguene PA, Ntie-Kang F, Lifongo LL, Ndom JC, Sippl W, Mbaze LM. The potential of anti-malarial compounds derived from African medicinal plants, part I: A pharmacological evaluation of alkaloids and terpenoids. Malaria Journal. 2013;12(449):1-25.
Oliveira A, Dolabela MF, Braga FC, Rose JL, Varotti FP, Póvoa MM. Plant-derived antimalarial agents: New leads and efficient phythomedicines. Part I. Alkaloids. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. 2009;81(4):715-740.
Saxena S, Pant N, Jain CD, Bhakuni RS. Antimalarial agents from plant sources. Current Science. 2003;85(9): 1314-1329.
Soniran OT, Idowu OA, Ajayi OL, Olubi IC. Comparative study on the effects of chloroquine and artesunate on histopathological damages caused by Plasmodium berghei in four vital organs of infected albino mice. Malaria Research and Treatment; 2012.