The Implications of Some Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Practices on Malaria Prevalence among Primary School Children in Gombe State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Mela Danjin
Solomon O. Adewoye
Henry O. Sawyerr

Abstract

Background: The sanitary state of the environment and general hygiene has long been known to play a critical role in the cause and spread of infectious diseases, be it directly or indirectly.   

Objective: This study was aimed at exploring the implications of some WASH practices on the prevalence of malaria infection among school children in Gombe State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A cross sectional survey design was employed to study 745 school children (aged 6 to 15 years) who were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique from 12 public and 6 private schools in six Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the State. Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was used to screen the children for malaria. Descriptive statistics were generated to summarize research findings while chi square statistics was used to compare proportions at 0.05 significance levels. Risks were estimated using odd ratio (OR).

Results: The mean age of the pupils was 9.96±2.26 years and slightly more than half (50.9%) of them were males while the rest (49.1%) were females. Out of the 745 subjects only 101 (13.6%) tested positive for malaria.  And even though, 86.4% of them indicated availability of toilets in their residences, not all (98.6%) of them used the toilets. Slightly more than half (51.5%) of the participants dwell in houses without proper drainage while 46.7% reside in mud houses. Children from households without toilets had more than five times odds of having malaria (OR=5.230; 95% CI= 3.236-8.453, P=0.000). Furthermore, children from households that were sourcing their drinking water from streams, rivers and wells suffered more from malaria than those using portable/pipe borne water (OR=0.230, CI= 0.131-0.405, p=0.000). While children who dwelt in cement houses had less odds of malaria infection (OR=0.270, 95% CI=0.169-0.431, P=0.000), those who dwelt in houses without drainages had more than twice odds of malaria infection (OR=2.642, 95% CI= 1.671- 4.176). Again, proper waste disposal was associated with lower odds of malaria infection.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggests the existence of association between selected WASH practices and malaria prevalence among the school children. This should inform an integrated WASH and malaria advocacy as well as high level engagement with concerned authorities and communities.

Keywords:
WASH, practices, association, malaria, school children

Article Details

How to Cite
Danjin, M., Adewoye, S. O., & Sawyerr, H. O. (2020). The Implications of Some Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Practices on Malaria Prevalence among Primary School Children in Gombe State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 16-27. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2020/v5i130157
Section
Original Research Article

References

WHO. World Malaria Report. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO); 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

WHO. World malaria report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO

Walldorf JA, Cohee LM, Coalson JE, Bauleni A, Nkanaunena K, Kapito-Tembo A, et al. School-age children are a reservoir of malaria infection in Malawi. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0134061.

DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0134061

Onyido AE, Nwankwo OS, Chikezie FM. et. al. Malaria parasitaemia among primary school children in Oko community, Orumba north local government area, Anambra state, Nigeria. Int J Health Sci Res. 2015;5(6):178-187.

Danjin M, Adewoye SO, Sawyerr HO. The burden and socio-demographic differentials of malaria infection among asymptomatic school children in Gombe State, Nigeria. Int J of Tropical Disease & Health. 2020;41(4):26-42, Article no. IJTDH.56270 ISSN: 2278–1005, NLM ID: 101632866.

Brooks GF, Janet SB, Morse AS. Medical Parasitology, In: Medical Microbiology, McGraw-Hill, United Kingdom, 23rd Edition. 2004(Rev. 2010);727-731.

Okeke OP, Imakwu CA, Eyo JE, Okafor FC. Prevalence of malaria infection in children in Anambra State. Anim Res Int. 2016;13(1):2385 – 2391.

Mustapha A, Mangga HK, Bello HS, Isa MA, et al. Prevalence of malaria parasite infection among children attending paediatric ward, university of maiduguri teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria. Asian J of Res in Biol and Pharm Sciences. 2018;6(1):27-31.

National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2018. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF; 2019.

Onyiri N. Estimating malaria burden in Nigeria: A geo-statistical modelling approach. Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland. Geospatial Health. 2015;10:306.

Anthonj C, Githinji S, Kistemann T. The impact of water on health and ill-health in a sub-Saharan African wetland: Exploring both sides of the coin. Science of the Total Env. 2018;624:1411–1420.

WHO/UNICEF. Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF); 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

Yang D, He Y, Wuc B, Deng Y, Li M, Yang Q, Huang L, Cao Y, Liu Y. Drinking water and sanitation conditions are associated with the risk of malaria among children under five years old in sub-Saharan Africa: A logistic regression model analysis of national survey data. J of Advanced Res. 2020;21:1–13.

Tusting LS, Bottomley C, Gibson H, Kleinschmidt I, Tatem AJ, Lindsay SW et al. Housing improvements and malaria risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multi-country analysis of survey data. PLoS Med. 2017;14(2):e1002234.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002234

Castro MC, Kanamori S, Kannady K, Mkude S, Killeen GF, Fillinger U. The importance of drains for the larval development of lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors in dares salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. PLoS Neg Trop Diseases. 2010;4(5).

Available:http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000693

De Silva PM, Marshall JM. Factors contributing to urban malaria transmission in sub-saharan Africa: A systematic review. J of Trop Med; 2012.

Available:http://doi.org/10.1155/2012/819563

Nakkhara P, Chongsuvivatwong V, Thammapalo S. Risk factors for symptomatic and asymptomatic chikungunya infection. Transact of the Royal Soc of Trop Med and Hyg. 2013;107(12):789–796.

Available:http://doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trt083

Braga C, Feitosa C, Mariaturchi C, De WV. Europe PMC funders group seroprevalence and risk factors for dengue infection in socioeconomically distinct areas of Recife Brazil. 2013;113(3).

Available:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.10.021.Seroprevalence

Velasco-Salas ZI, Sierra GM, Guzm DM, Zambrano J, Vivas D, Comach G, Tami A. Dengue seroprevalence and risk factors for past and recent viral transmission in Venezuela: A comprehensive community-based study. Amer J of Trop Med and Hyg. 2014;91(5):1039–1048.

Available:http://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0127

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Demographic Statistics Bulletin; 2017.

Available:https:// nigerianstat.gov.ng

Accessed on 23/07/2020.

Ahmad YU, Yahaya I. X-raying rainfall pattern in Gombe State over the last three decades. IOSR J of Hum and Soc Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2017;22(6)Ver.11(June. 2017):67-75, e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845.

Pocock SJ. Clinical trials. A practical approach. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1993.

National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP), National Population Commission (NPopC), National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), and ICF International. Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey 2015: Key Indicators. Abuja,Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NMEP, NPopC, and ICF International.

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2016-17, Survey Findings Report. Abuja, Nigeria: National Bureau of Statistics and United Nations Children’s Fund.

Gombe state bureau of statistics (GSBS). Personal visit to the state office/bureau in 2018. Data Supplied by the Chief Data Officer.

WHO. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria. 3rd ed; 2015.

Available:http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241549127/en/

Ani OC. Endemicity of malaria among primary school children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Anim Res International. 2004;1(3):155–159.

Enebeli UU, Amadi AN, Iro OK, Oparaocha ET, Nwoke EA, Ibe SNO, Oti NN, Chukwuocha UM, Nwufo CR, Amadi CO, Esomonu I. Assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene practices and the occurrence of childhood malaria in Abia State, Nigeria. Researchjournali’s J. of Pub Health. 2019;5(6):1-15.

Available:www.researchjournali.com

National Population Commission NPC & Inner City Fund ICF International. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Abuja, FCT & Rockville, MA: NPC & ICF International Publishing; 2014.

WHO Water, Sanitation and Hygiene strategy 2018-2025. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 (WHO/CED/PHE/WSH/18.03). Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.