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Under-five mortality is among the major public health problems in developing countries, the rate of which is an important factor for a country’s development. For this reason, under-five mortality status is an important outcome to measure for children’s health. This study uses the Cox proportional-hazards model to identify risk factors associated with under-five mortality in Sudan. This study uses the 2014 Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with several national institutions. The survival Cox proportional-hazards model was used to identify factors that affect under-five child mortality in Sudan. The results show that the weight of a child at birth is positively associated with the under-five child mortality rate. Under-five children who have both small and large weights at birth are at a higher risk of dying before reaching five years. Based on demographic factors associated with under-five mortality, our analysis showed that mothers who were married at the time of the survey are most likely to have higher under-five child mortality as compared to formerly married mothers. In addition to this, that mother’s age at the time of the birth is significantly associated with under-five mortality. Based on the result, the lack of important policies targeting the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities between rural and urban areas is the major problem of public health interventions to improve child health and survival in Sudan.
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