Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, Perception and Practices on Rabies Disease in the GA East Municipality, Ghana

Main Article Content

Oscar Vetsi
Eric Gyamfi
Emmanuel Yaw Sarfo-Twerefour

Abstract

Background: Rabies is one of the neglected tropical zoonotic diseases caused by a virus. It belongs to the Rhabdoviridae [1]. It is a disease that is commonly found in animals but can easily effect human [2]. Where there are animal reservoirs, rabies is commonly spread. The general objective of this study to evaluate differences in knowledge, attitude and perception about rabies, among the residence in Ga East.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was used in this study using purposive sampling technique. Data was collected by interviewing study participants using OKD Collection and also STATA version14.2 was used for data analysis

Results: A total of 475 respondents were involved in the study with 354 (74.53%) males and 121(25.47%) as females. Of this, majority of the participants (93.47%) own a dog against 6.53% who did not own a dog. Dog is own in the community basically for security purposes (77.25%). Few own dog for leisure.  The study document less than 50% of the respondents [186 (39.16%)] resort to local drug stores drug store for first aid following a dog bit. Seeking veterinary attention (12.84%) and properly clearing of wound (8.84%) was not a common practice. Participants were of the opinion that tetanus vaccination should be done first (29.05%). Most of the participants have heard about rabies (96.42%) and showed various degree of knowledge on source of rabies, common animals associated with rabies, symptoms of rabies. Among some other practices, any identified rabid dog is killed as indicated by majority of the participants (52.63%). Most participants (71.58%) knew that rabies vaccination serves as preventive measures against rabies and further perceived all dogs must be vaccinated (38.32%). Of the total respondents, most (63.74%) never sent their dog for routine medical check-up nor vaccinated their dogs (70.95%).

Conclusion: The study revered that dog owners do not provide adequate care for their dogs. In addition to low coverage of dog vaccination and human anti rabies vaccination in the community which poses a greater threat to the lives community, the potential for increased spread of the diseases is high due to inadequate level of knowledge, poor perceptions, and attitudes towards rabies.

Keywords:
Rabies, knowledge, reservoir, zoonotic, varus, saliva, animal, neglected.

Article Details

How to Cite
Vetsi, O., Gyamfi, E., & Sarfo-Twerefour, E. Y. (2021). Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, Perception and Practices on Rabies Disease in the GA East Municipality, Ghana. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 6(2), 26-36. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i230192
Section
Original Research Article

References

Tulek N, Senocak H, Yetkin A, Un H, Aylan O. Antibody response achieved by different rabies prophylaxis methods. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2006;10(1):87-8.

Cullingham CI, Kyle CJ, Pond BA, Rees EE, White BN. Differential permeability of rivers to raccoon gene flow corresponds to rabies incidence in Ontario, Canada. Molecular Ecology. 2009;18(1):43-53.

Fooks AR, Banyard AC, Horton DL, Johnson N, McElhinney LM, Jackson AC. Current status of rabies and prospects for elimination. The Lancet. 2014;384(9951):1389-99.

Stahl JP, Gautret P, Ribadeau-Dumas F, Strady C, Le Moal G, Souala F, Maslin J, Fremont B, Bourhy H. Update on human rabies in a dog-and fox-rabies-free country. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses. 2014;44(7):292-301.

George DB, Webb CT, Farnsworth ML, O'Shea TJ, Bowen RA, Smith DL, Stanley TR, Ellison LE, Rupprecht CE. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2011;108(25):10208-13.

Dodet B, Bureau AR, Adjogoua EV, Aguemon AR, Amadou OH, Atipo AL, Baba BA, Ada SB, Boumandouki P, Bourhy H, Diallo MK. Fighting rabies in Africa: The Africa rabies expert bureau (AfroREB). Vaccine. 2008;26(50):6295-8.

Bourhy H, Dautry-Varsat A, Hotez PJ, Salomon J. Rabies, still neglected after 125 years of vaccination. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2010;4(11).

Geerdes JA. Dog population characteristics and rabies vaccination coverage at the wildlife interface in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa (Master's Thesis); 2013.

Elieza SV. Trends in Dog Bites and Human Rabies in Greater Accra Region, Ghana (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ghana); 2013.

Jackson AC. Rabies. InViral Infections of the Human Nervous System. Springer, Basel. 2013;211-235.

Badoe E, Wilmshurst JM. An overview of the effect and epidemiology of viral central nervous system infections in African children. InSeminars in pediatric neurology. WB Saunders. 2014;21(1):26-29.

Hemachudha T, Ugolini G, Wacharapluesadee S, Sungkarat W, Shuangshoti S, Laothamatas J. Human rabies: neuropathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. The Lancet Neurology. 2013;12(5):498-513.

Tiembré I, Vroh JB, Kouassi DP, Attoh-Touré H, Ekra KD, Diane A, Tagliante-Saracino J. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Household Heads in Relation to Rabies in the Abobo District (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire) in 2008. Sante Publique. 2014;26(4):547-53.

Bourhy H, Reynes JM, Dunham EJ, Dacheux L, Larrous F, Huong VT, Xu G, Yan J, Miranda ME, Holmes EC. The origin and phylogeography of dog rabies virus. The Journal of General Virology. 2008;89(Pt 11):2673.

Bourhy H, Dautry-Varsat A, Hotez PJ, Salomon J. Rabies, still neglected after 125 years of vaccination. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2010;4(11).

Adedeji AO, Eyarefe OD, Okonko IO, Ojezele MO, Amusan TA, Abubakar MJ. Why is there still rabies in Nigeria?-A review of the current and future trends in the epidemiology, prevention, treatment, control and possible elimination of rabies. British Journal of Dairy Sciences. 2010;1(1):10-25.

Tettey MK. Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices of Dog Owners: Relevance for Control of Rabies in the Tamale Municipality in the Northern Region of Ghana (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ghana).

Bögel K, Motschwiller E. Incidence of rabies and post-exposure treatment in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1986;64(6):883.

Cleaveland S, Kaare M, Tiringa P, Mlengeya T, Barrat J. A dog rabies vaccination campaign in rural Africa: impact on the incidence of dog rabies and human dog-bite injuries. Vaccine. 2003;21(17-18):1965-73.

Ehimiyein AM, Nanfa F, Ehimiyein IO, Jahun BM. Retrospective study of dog bite cases at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and its environment. Veterinary World. 2014;7(8):617-21.

Ogun AA, Okonko IO, Udeze AO, Shittu I, Garba KN, Fowotade A, Adewale OG, Fajobi EA, Onoja BA, Babalola ET, Adedeji AO. Feasibility and factors affecting global elimination and possible eradication of rabies in the world. J Gen MolVirol. 2010;2(1):1-27.