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Human immune Virus/Acquire immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic is one of the major public health challenges faced by Nigeria. The review present the Epidemiology of Human immune Virus/Acquire immune deficiency syndrome, diagnostic and Prevention in Nigeria. The method use was based on the data obtain in Nigeria. Nigeria’s first two AIDS cases were diagnosed in 1985 in Lagos. Today, Nigeria’s epidemic is characterized as one the most rapidly increased rates of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa. Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). Recently, it is estimated that about 3, 229, 757 people live with HIV in Nigeria and about 220, 393 new HIV infections occurred in 2013 and 210,031 died from AIDS- related causes. As of 2020 in Nigeria, the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15–49 was 3.1 percent Nigeria has the second-largest number of people living with HIV. In some states, the epidemic is more concentrated and driven by high-risk behaviors, while other states have more generalized epidemics that are sustained primarily by multiple sexual partnerships in the general population. HIV is spread by sexual contact with an infected person and by blood or body fluid exchange through sharing of contaminated needles or transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors. Infants born to HIV-infected women may become infected in gestation, during birth, or through breastfeeding. An antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV seroprevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that 3.5 million Nigerian adults and children were living with HIV/AIDS by the end of 2001. Among sex workers in Lagos, HIV prevalence rose from 2 percent in 1988–89 to 12 percent in 1990–91. By 1995–96, up to 70 percent of sex workers tested positive. As a result of the epidemic, the crude death rate in Nigeria was about 20 percent higher in 2000 than in 1990. In 2019, 170,000 adults and children died of AIDS and UNAIDS estimated that 1 million children orphaned by AIDS were living in Nigeria. The main thrust of HIV prevention strategies in Nigeria is based on the following: Information, Education, and Communication; Condom Promotion; Behavior Change; and Vaccine Development.
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