The Epidemiology Pattern of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Diagnostic, Transmission and Prevention in Nigeria-Past and Present

Main Article Content

C. E. Oguh
E. N. O. Obiwulu
I. M. Sheshi
S. E. Ameh
C. O. Okpaka
T. J. Oluwadepo
U. M. Ejiofor

Abstract

Human immune Virus/Acquire immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic is one of the major public health challenges faced by Nigeria. The review present the Epidemiology of Human immune Virus/Acquire immune deficiency syndrome, diagnostic and Prevention in Nigeria. The method use was based on the data obtain in Nigeria. Nigeria’s first two AIDS cases were diagnosed in 1985 in Lagos. Today, Nigeria’s epidemic is characterized as one the most rapidly increased rates of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa. Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). Recently, it is estimated that about 3, 229, 757 people live with HIV in Nigeria and about 220, 393 new HIV infections occurred in 2013 and 210,031 died from AIDS- related causes. As of 2020 in Nigeria, the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15–49 was 3.1 percent Nigeria has the second-largest number of people living with HIV. In some states, the epidemic is more concentrated and driven by high-risk behaviors, while other states have more generalized epidemics that are sustained primarily by multiple sexual partnerships in the general population. HIV is spread by sexual contact with an infected person and by blood or body fluid exchange through sharing of contaminated needles or transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors. Infants born to HIV-infected women may become infected in gestation, during birth, or through breastfeeding. An antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV seroprevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that 3.5 million Nigerian adults and children were living with HIV/AIDS by the end of 2001. Among sex workers in Lagos, HIV prevalence rose from 2 percent in 1988–89 to 12 percent in 1990–91. By 1995–96, up to 70 percent of sex workers tested positive. As a result of the epidemic, the crude death rate in Nigeria was about 20 percent higher in 2000 than in 1990. In 2019, 170,000 adults and children died of AIDS and UNAIDS estimated that 1 million children orphaned by AIDS were living in Nigeria. The main thrust of HIV prevention strategies in Nigeria is based on the following: Information, Education, and Communication; Condom Promotion; Behavior Change; and Vaccine Development.

Keywords:
Diagnostic, epidemiology, HIV/AIDS, prevention, Nigeria

Article Details

How to Cite
Oguh, C. E., Obiwulu, E. N. O., Sheshi, I. M., Ameh, S. E., Okpaka, C. O., Oluwadepo, T. J., & Ejiofor, U. M. (2021). The Epidemiology Pattern of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Diagnostic, Transmission and Prevention in Nigeria-Past and Present. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 29-50. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i330198
Section
Review Article

References

Fleming AF. Seroepidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses in Africa. Biomed Pharmacother. 1988;42(5):309–320.

Kreiss JK, Koech D, Plummer FA. AIDS virus infection in nairobi prostitutes: Spread of the Epidemic in East Africa. N Engl J Med. 1986;314:414–418.

Lovgren S. African Army Hastening HIV/AIDS Spread. Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies. 2001; 1:28-34.

UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS. 2004;96-99.

Harry TO, Kabeya H, Claire M, Okpudo-Itata E. Rapid Increase in Prevalence of HIV Infection among Prostitutes in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Afr J Med Pract. 1997;4:182–186.

Melbye M, Njelesani EK, Bayley A. Evidence For Heterosexual Transmission And Clinical Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Related Conditions in Lusaka, Zambia. Lancet. 1986;2:1113–1115.

Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M. Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:493–505.

Vandeperre P, Clumeck N, Carael M. Female Prostitutes: A Risk Factor for Infection with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type III. Lancet. 1985;2:524–526.

UNAIDS. Epidemiological Fact Sheet Nigeria, Update. Geneva: UNAIDS. 2004; 57.

Hladik W, Masupu K, Roels T, Plipat T, Kaharuza F. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission and Voluntary Counseling and Testing Programme Data: what is their utility for HIV surveillance? AIDS. 2005; 19(2):19–24.

United States Agency International Development. HIV/AIDS Health Profile: Sub-Saharan Africa; 2013.
Available:http://transition.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/Countries/africa/hiv_summary_africa.pdf>
Accessed 7 February 2013
[Google Scholar]
[Ref list]

Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS. GARPR; Abuja, Nigeria. Global AIDS Response: Country Progress Report; 2012.
Available:http://www.unaids.org/en/dataanalysis/knowyourresponse/countryprogressreports/2012countries/Nigeria%202012%20GARPR%20Report%20Revised.pdf>
Accessed 7 February 2013
[Google Scholar]
[Ref list]

Federal Ministry of Health. National HIV & AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. NARHS Plus. 2012-2013.II.
[Google Scholar]
[Ref list]

Federal Ministry of Health. Federal Ministry of Health; Abuja, Nigeria: National HIV Sero-prevalence Sentinel Survey among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Nigeria; 2010.
Available:http://www.nigeriaaids.org/documents/2010_National%20HIV%20Sero%20Prevalence%20Sentinel%20Survey.pdf> Accessed 8 February 2013
[Google Scholar]

Federal Ministry of Health. Federal Ministry of Health; Abuja, Nigeria: HIV/STI Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey; 2007-2008.
Available:http://www.wisdomofwhores.com/references/blog_refs/NigeriaIBBSSReport2008HV.pdf
Accessed 10 February 2013
[Google Scholar]
[Ref list]

Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS. Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS; Abuja, Nigeria. National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan 2010–2015. Available:http://nigeria.unfpa.org/pdf/nsp.pdf> (accessed 9 February 2013)
[Google Scholar] [Ref list]

Federal Ministry of Health. ANC, Survey Report HIV estimates and projection. 2010-2011;44.

UNAIDS. Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections. Improved methods and assumptions for Estimation of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic and its Impact. Recommendations of the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections. AIDS. 2002;16:1–14.

Mohammed I, Nasidi A, Chikwem JO. AIDS in Nigeria. AIDS. 1988;2:61–64.

Federal Ministry of Health. Federal Ministry of Health; Abuja, Nigeria. HIV Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey; 2010.
Available:http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/2011HIV_IBBSS2010.pdf
Accessed 10 February 2013
[Google Scholar]

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS. Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Nigeria: An update; 2004. Available:http://data.unaids.org/Publications/Fact-Sheets01/Nigeria_en.pdf> Accessed 10 February 2013
[Google Scholar]
[Ref list]

Piot P, Quinn TC, Taelman H. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in a Heterosexual Population in Zaire. Lancet. 1984;2:527–529.

United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report. New York: United Nations Development Program. 2004;141.

Obi CL, Ogbonna BA, Igumbor EO. HIV Seropositivity among Female Prostitutes and Non prostitutes: Obstetrics and Perinatal Implications. Viral Immunol. 1993;6:171–174.

Harry TO, Bubbuk DN, Idrisa A, Akoma MB. HIV Infection among Pregnant Women: A Worsening Situation in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Trop Geogr Med. 1994;46:46–47.

Federal Ministry of Health. National HIV Seroprevalence Sentinel Survey. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Health. 2003;27.

Mofenson LM. Advances in the Prevention of Vertical Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2003;4(4):295–308.

Mofenson LM, Lambert JS, Stiehm ER. Risk Factors for Perinatal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Women Treated with Zidovudine. N Engl Jmed. 1999;341:385–393.

Eshleman SH, Mracna M, Guay L. Selection and Fading of Resistance Mutations in Women and Infants Receiving Nevirapine to Prevent HIV-1 Vertical Transmission (HIVNET 012). AIDS. . 2001;15:1951–1957.

Lallement M. Response to the Therapy after Prior Exposure to Nevirapine. 3rd IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 2005; 3:24–27.

Morfeldt-Manson L, Lindquist L. Blood brotherhood: A risk factor for AIDS? Lancet. 1984;2:1346.

Futuh-Shandall AA. Circumcision and Infibulations of Females. SudanMed J. 1967;5:178–211.

Oguh CE, Obiwulu ENO, Oniwon WO, Okekeaji U, Ugwu CV, Umezinwa OJ, Osuji CA. Structure and function of covid-19 encode proteins in the transcription and replication mechanism with its preventive measures, and propose efficacy treatments; a critical systematic review. Asian Journal of Immunology. 2020;3(4): 15-29. Available:http://journalaji.com/index.php/AJI/article/view/30120.

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS. The Gap Report: Children and Pregnant Women Living with HIV. Geneva; 2014.
[Google Scholar]
[Ref list]

Iqbal MM. Can we get AIDS from Mosquito Bites? J La StateMed Soc. 1999;151(8): 429–433.

Bockarie MJ, Paru R. Can Mosquitoes Transmit AIDS? P N GMed J. 1995; 39(3):205–207.

United States Institute of Peace. AIDS and Violent Conflict in Africa. Special Report. Washington, DC. United States Institute of Peace. 2001;212.

UNAIDS. AIDS and the Military. Best Practice Collection. Geneva: UNAIDS. 1998;114-116.

Nasidi A, Harry TO. The epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. In: Adeyi O, Kanki PJ, Odutolu O, Idoko JA, editors. AIDS in Nigeria: A Nation on the Threshold. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies; Cambridge (Massachusetts); 2006.
Available:http://www.apin.harvard.edu/Chapter2.pdf>
Accessed 7 February 2012
[Google Scholar]
[Ref list]

National Action Committee on AIDS. (2005). HIV/AIDS National Strategic Framework, Abuja. 2005-2009;102.

Federal Ministry of Health. National HIV & AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey NARHS Plus. 2012-2013;II.
[Google Scholar]
[Ref list]

Nasidi A, Harry TO, Ajose-Coker OO. Evidence of LAV/HTLV III infection and AIDS-related complex in Lagos, Nigeria. International Conference on AIDS, Paris, France. 1986;23(1):20–25.

Adesoji FA, Moronkola OA. Changing Social and Cultural Practices in the face of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Afr Q. 2003;43(3): 55–60.

Adeyemi AO, Oyediran K, Issa KB, Azeez A, Atobatele A, Fakunle O. HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria: A potential population for HIV vaccine trial. Retrovirology. 2012;9(Suppl. 2):223.

UNAIDS. AIDS in Africa: Three Scenarios. Geneva UNAIDS; 2005 to 2025.
Available:http://www.retrovirology.com/content/pdf/1742-4690-9-S2-P223.pdf>.
[Google Scholar]
[Ref list]

Campbell S. Management of HIV/AIDS Transmission in Health Care. Nurs Stand. 2004;18(27):33–35.