Molecular Identification of invA gene from Salmonella species isolated from Human Sources in Southern Taraba, North-East Nigeria

Abel Onolunosen Abhadionmhen *

Department of Microbiology, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria and Tropical Disease Unit, Department of Microbiology, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Edobor Peter Kenneth Imarenezor

Department of Microbiology, Federal University, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Samuel Tamuno Cockeye Brown

Department of Microbiology, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Omotayo Emerson Lana

Department of Public Health, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom.

Oreye Queen Usiabulu

Department of Public Health, University of Bedsfordshire, United Kingdom.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in Wukari, Donga, Ibi, and Takum Local Government Areas in Southern Taraba State, North-East Nigeria. These areas were chosen due to their high population of farmers and traders, making them suitable locations for investigating foodborne pathogens. The experimental research spanned a period of 7 months, during which 200 blood and stool samples were collected from food vendors in the selected areas.

Methodology: Sample collection involved the collection of 200 blood and stool samples from food vendors in Wukari, Donga, Ibi, and Takum Local Government Areas. Isolation and confirmation of Salmonella species were carried out through cultural and biochemical analyses, with reference strains used for quality control. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) extraction was performed using the boiling technique, followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of the invA gene. Electrophoresis on an agarose gel was used to visualize the presence of the invA gene in the isolates.

Results: The results of the study revealed a high prevalence of Salmonella species among food vendors in Southern Taraba State, North-East Nigeria. Analysis of the invA gene showed its presence in all isolates, indicating the widespread distribution of virulent strains in the study area. The findings underscore the importance of PCR-based methods for the detection of Salmonella and suggest the need for comprehensive surveillance and control measures to prevent foodborne illnesses.

Conclusion: The study demonstrates the significant prevalence of Salmonella species among food vendors in Southern Taraba State, North-East Nigeria. The detection of the invA gene in all isolates highlights the potential virulence of these strains and emphasizes the importance of effective surveillance and control strategies to mitigate the risk of foodborne diseases. Further research is warranted to elucidate the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance genes associated with Salmonella strains in the region, facilitating the development of targeted interventions for public health protection.

Keywords: Salmonella, food vendors, prevalence, invA gene, PCR


How to Cite

Abhadionmhen, A. O., Imarenezor , E. P. K., Brown, S. T. C., Lana, O. E., & Usiabulu , O. Q. (2024). Molecular Identification of invA gene from Salmonella species isolated from Human Sources in Southern Taraba, North-East Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 15(3), 7–16. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2024/v15i3333

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Imarenezor EP, Abhadionmhen OA. Prevalence of Salmonella isolated from poultry farms and domestic chicken coops in Southern Taraba, North-East, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2022;11(9):17-20.

Barnett R. Typhoid fever. Lancet (London, England). 2016;388(10059):2467.

Ashurst J, Truong J, Woodbury B. Typhoid Fever (Salmonella Typhi). Continuing Education Activity. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023.

Sreekantapuram S, Berens C, Barth SA, et al. Interaction of Salmonella gallinarum and salmonella enteritidis with peripheral leucocytes of hens with different laying performance. Vet Res. 2021;52:123.

Shah SR. Salmonella typhi as a Pathogenic Organism----A Mini Review. Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences. 2021;4(Special Is):S105-10.

Mkangara M. Prevention and control of human Salmonella enterica infections: An implication in food safety. International Journal of Food Science. 2023;2023.

Manesh A, Meltzer E, Jin C, et al. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever: A clinical seminar. J Travel Med. 2021;28(3): taab012.

Imarenezor EP, Abhadionmhen OA, Brown ST, Osheku ZI. Antibiogram of salmonella isolates from animal and human sources in Southern Taraba, North-East, Nigeria. International Journal of Biology and Pharmacy Research Updates. 2022;2(2): 007-15.

Andrews J, John J, Charles RC. Enteric (typhoid and paratyphoid) fever: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. UpToDate. Available:https://www.uptodate.com/contents/enteric-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis Acedido a. 2023;16(03).

Rehman F, Tareen AM, Taj K, Khan SU. A comprehensive review on Salmonella typhi: Pathogenesis, clinical features and antibiotic resistance patterns.

Paul J. Gastrointestinal tract infections. In: Disease causing microbes. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 2024; 149-215.

Global burden of disease collaborative network. GBD 2020 cause and risk summaries: typhoid fever—level 4 cause. Seattle, WA, USA: Institute for health metrics and evaluation; 2020

Imanishi M, Newton AE, Vieira AR, et al. Typhoid fever acquired in the United States, 1999-2010: Epidemiology, microbiology, and use of a space-time scan statistic for outbreak detection. Epidemiol Infect. 2015;143(11):2343-54.

Akinyemi KO, Oyefolu AOB, Mutiu WB, et al. Typhoid fever: Tracking the trend in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018;99(3 Suppl):41–47.

Imarenezor EP, Abhadionmhen OA, Brown ST. Risk factors associated with Salmonella prevalence among food vendors in Southern Taraba, north-east Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research Updates. 2022;4(2):108–114.

Mahmoud A, Oluyemisi A, Uwishema O, Sun J, Jobran AW, David S, Wireko AA, Adanur I, Dost B, Onyeaka H. Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of typhoid fever in Africa: A review. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2023;38(2): 317-29.

Jia C, Wang Z, Huang C, Teng L, Zhou H, An H, Liao S, Liu Y, Huang L, Tang B, Yue M. Mobilome-driven partitions of the resistome in Salmonella. Msystems. 2023;8(6):e00883-23.

Word Health Organization (WHO). Typhoid; 2023

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. IJMS. 2018;1(1):65-8.

Ogah JO, Adekunle OC, Adegoke AA. Prevalence of salmonellosis among food handlers and the health implications on the food consumers in lagos State, Nigeria. J Med Microb Diagn. 2015;4(2):1-5.

Webber B, Borges KA, Furian TQ, Rizzo NN, Tondo EC, Santos LRD, Rodrigues LB, Nascimento VPD. Detection of virulence genes in Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from chicken carcasses. Magazine of the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Sao Paulo. 2019;61(36).

Borah P, Dutta R, Das L, Hazarika G, Choudhury M, Deka NK, Malakar D, Hussain MI, Barkalita LM. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Salmonella serovars isolated from humans and animals. Veterinary Research Communications. 2022;46(3):79 9-810.

Abhadionmhen AO, Anyiam VI, Imarenezor EP, Brown ST. Molecular characterization of Salmonella species isolated from animal sources in Southern-Taraba State, North-East Nigeria. International Journal of Pathogen Research. 2023;12(4):33-40.

Fabrega A, Vila J. Salmonella enterica Serovar typhimurium skills to succeed in the host: virulence and regulation. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2013;26(2):308–34 1.

Akinyemi KO, Fakorede CO, Abegunrin RO, Ajoseh SO, Anjorin AA, Amisu KO, Opere BO, Moro DD. Detection of invA and blaCTM genes in Salmonella spp. isolated from febrile patients in Lagos hospitals in Nigeria. Ger J Microbiol. 2021;1(3):1-10.

Kumar R, Surendran PK, Thampuran N. Aneight-hour PCR-based technique for de-tection of Salmonella serovars in seafood. World J Microbiol Biotech. 2008;24:627-3.

Nikiema MEM, Kakou-Ngazoa S, Ky/Ba A, Sylla A, Bako E, Addablah AYA, Ouoba JB, Sampo E, Gnada K, Zongo O, Traoré KA, Sanou A, Bonkoungou IJO, Ouédraogo R, Barro N, Sangaré, L. Characterization of virulence factors of Salmonella isolated from human stools and street food in urban areas of Burkina Faso. BMC Microbiology. 2021;21(1):338.

Adesiji YO, Deekshit VK, Karunasagar I. Antimicrobial-resistant genes associated with Salmonella spp. isolated from human, poultry, and seafood sources. Food Science & Nutrition. 2014;2(4):436–442.

De Jong HK, Parry CM, van der Poll T, Wiersinga WJ. Host–pathogen interaction in invasive salmonellosis. Plos Pathogens. 2012;8(10).

Panwar S, Kumari S, Verma J, Bakshi S, Narendrakumar L, Paul D, Das B. Toxin-linked mobile genetic elements in major enteric bacterial pathogens. Gut Microbiome. 2023;4:e5.

Moreno Switt AI, den Bakker HC, Cummings CA, Rodriguez-Rivera LD, Govoni G, et al. Identification and characterization of novel Salmonella mobile elements involved in the dissemination of genes linked to virulence and transmission. Plos One. 2012;7(7):e4 1247.

Ferguson GC, Heinemann JA, Kennedy MA. Gene transfer between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inside epithelial cells. Journal of Bacteriology. 2002;184(8):2235–2242.

Antimicrobial-resistant genes associated with Salmonella spp. isolated from human, poultry, and seafood sources. Food Science & Nutrition. 2014;2(4):436–442.

Li Q. Mechanisms for the Invasion and Dissemination of Salmonella. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology. 2022 Jun 9;2022.

Domfeh S, Amoah M, Sefa L. Comparative study of Widal test to stool culture for the diagnosis of suspected typhoid fever: a study in a primary health centre, Ghana. Microbes and Infectious Diseases; 2023.

Murray PR, Rosenthal K, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology: Medical Microbiology E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2020.

Neupane DP, Dulal HP, Song J. Enteric fever diagnosis: current challenges and future directions. Pathogens. 2021;10(4): 410.

Ferone M, Gowen A, Fanning S, Scannell AG. Microbial detection and identification methods: Bench top assays to omics approaches. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2020;19 (6):3106-29.

Al-Emran HM, Hahn A, Baum J, et al. Diagnosing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infections by polymerase chain reaction using EDTA blood samples of febrile patients from Burkina Faso. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(Suppl 1):S37–S41

Kim S, Frye JG, Hu J, Fedorka-Cray PJ,Gautom R, Boyle DS. Multiplex PCR-based method for identification of common clinical serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006;44(10): 3608-15.