Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases 2024-04-19T09:27:08+00:00 Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases (ISSN: 2582-3221)</strong> aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRID/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Infectious Diseases’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the Elderly: Epidemiological, Clinical, and Evolutionary Aspects 2024-04-13T13:24:33+00:00 Ngom N F Mbaye B R Ndiaye A Thiam K. Faye F A Dia Kane Y Ka O Coume M. Touré N O <p><strong>Aims: </strong>this study aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, and evolutionary aspects of pulmonary tuberculosis in the elderly and to determine the factors associated with death.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; This was an exhaustive, descriptive, and analytical retrospective study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Pneumo-phtisiology department of Fann National Teaching Hospital Center over three years, from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This was a study using medical records of patients aged 60 and over hospitalized in the pneumo-phtisiology department. Data were collected on a pre-established from patient medical records entered with Microsoft Excel 2019 software. Data analysis was performed with Statistical Package for Sciences Socials (SPSS) version 18</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> we collected 620 medical records of hospitalized patients aged 60 and over, 69 of whom were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, standing for a prevalence of 11.12%. The average age was 67.13 [60;85] years, with a sex ratio of 3.92. The 60 to 65 age group was the most represented (n=36 or 52.17%). Smoking and alcoholism were frequent, 82% and 17.4% respectively. A previous history of TB infection was found in 23.19% of cases and TB contagion in 20.3% of cases. An underlying condition was at least observed in 50.72% of patients, dominated by diabetes (29%) and hypertension (23%). Co-infection with HIV-1 and tuberculosis was found in 2 patients (3%). The time to consultation was 75 days [3<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">-</span>180 days]. Symptomatology was polymorphic, dominated by cough (n=65; 94.20%), altered general condition (n=63; 91.30%), sputum (n=58; 84.06%), fever (n=53; 76.81%) and dyspnea (n=47; 68.12%). 46 patients (66.7%) had a BMI &lt; 18.5 kg/m2. Physical signs were dominated by pulmonary condensation (n=52; 75.36%), and a fold of undernutrition was noted in 21.74% of cases. Microbiological evidence was 92.75% and 64 patients (92.75%) were susceptible to rifampin. A rifampin-resistant strain was detected in 5 patients (7.25%) hospitalized in the MDR-TB unit. CRP (75.36%), anemia (68.18%), hyperleukocytosis (47.7%), and hyponatremia (27.54%) were the most frequent biological signs.</p> <p>Alveolar syndrome (n=48 or 70%) and cavitary images (n=34 or 50%) were most frequently found on lung radiography, and for those who benefited from thoracic CT (n=36 or 52.17%), cavitary images were found in 24 cases (66.66%).</p> <p>Pulmonary embolism (n=9 cases, i.e. 40.9%), superinfection (n=4), and excessive hemoptysis (n=3) were the most frequent complications. The mean length of hospital stay was 17 days [3-58 days]. The 2RHZE/4RH protocol was used for 87%. Two patients were placed on a second-line anti-tuberculosis treatment protocol. Treatment was not specified in 7 patients (10.14%). The progression was favorable in 48 patients (69.56% of cases), with a case fatality rate of 30.44%.&nbsp; Dyspnea, chest pain, anemia, hyperleukocytosis, and hyponatremia were associated with the risk of death.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The elderly are particularly exposed to tuberculosis, due to physiological aging of the immune system and co-morbidities. This study highlighted the diagnostic and evolutionary particularities of pulmonary tuberculosis in the elderly, as well as the associated fatal factors.</p> 2024-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Bacteriological Evaluation of Surface and Groundwater used for Domestic Purposes in Ibadan 2024-04-16T13:13:23+00:00 Ajongbolo Olayinka Abigail K.O. Adediran Morakinyo Abraham Adebambo Abass Falilat Abeo Ezekiel Dauda Gambo Paul Yiran Ntasin Adamu Muhammad Ibrahim <p>The right to safe and clean drinking water is a human right, unfortunately many communities rely on unsafe and contaminated water for drinking and domestic purposes. Through improper sewage and hospital waste disposal, pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria have found their way to natural water sources used by humans. In this study we aim to profile pathogenic bacteria and resistant Escherichia coli (<em>E. coli</em>) from surface and ground water sources in three local government areas of Oyo state. 30 water samples were collected randomly from the selected local government areas. Bacteriological, biochemical and antibiotic-resistant analysis was carried out on the isolated bacteria from the water samples. <em>E. coli</em> (28.30%) and Kleb pneumoniae (23.77%) were the predominant bacteria isolates, while Shigella (16.22%) and Salmonella (16.22%) also had substantial percentages. Nineteen <em>E. coli</em> was isolated and identified, with high antibiotic resistance rates observed in nalidixic Acid (100%), augmentin (100%), ampiclox (94.74%) and third-generation cephalosporins. Conversely, moderate levels of resistance were observed in nitrofurantoin (55.55%), cefepime (57.89%), and second-generation fluoroquinolones. This study reveals substantial pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistant <em>E. coli</em> in water samples which endangers the health of communities’ dependent on these water sources and exposes the inhabitants to antibiotic-resistant organisms from contaminated water used for domestic purposes. It is crucial to put in place water treatment measures and quality monitoring programmes in order to guarantee that the populace has access to clean and safe drinking water.</p> 2024-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Safety and Health Risk Management in Selected Kenya Tea Development Agency Factories in Bomet County, Kenya 2024-04-19T09:27:08+00:00 Bett Hillary Kipkoech Anthony Wanjohi Isaac Makau <p>Factory workers are faced with myriad of occupational safety and health risks as they carry on their day to day duties in their workstations. These safety and health risks are as a result of exposure to occupational hazards such as noise, organic dust, non-safeguarded or poorly safeguarded machines, poor ergonomics, poor floor conditions and falls, hot surfaces, among others. The objective of this research was to establish the safety and health risk management in Kenya Tea Development Agency Factories in Bomet County. The study used cross sectional analytical research design that allowed data collection at one point in time and involved photography, interviews, observation and measurements (air quality and noise) for data collection. The independent variables were classified under individual and system characteristics. Individual characteristics were the demographic variables while system characteristics were the hardware that make up a tea factory. The intervening variables were the system that make up safety and health management system and administration in the factory. The study was undertaken in Bomet County which has eight KTDA tea processing factories. The target population was employees in Tea Factories managed by KTDA. The study population was 1019 workers in tea factories in Bomet County with a sample size of 317 employees. Simple random sampling gave every worker a chance to be included in the study. The Yamane (1968) sample size determination formula was used in the study since the target population was less than 10,000 people. Authorization was obtained from Kenyatta University Graduate School and ethical clearance sought from Kenyatta University Ethical Review Committee while the research license was obtained from NACOSTI. Access to the KTDA Factories was granted by management through the managing director at the head office. Informed consent was sought from workers before participating in the study. Focus Group Discussion guide, interviewer administered questionnaires, noise meter and particulate counter was used for data collection. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics such as mean, frequencies and percentages. The inferential statistics; chi square and binary logistic regression model was used to test association between variables. Qualitative data was grouped according to emerging themes. Data was presented using charts and tables. The prevalence of occupational hazards in tea factories was 41.3%. The study statistically established that machinery without safeguards was the most prevalent occupational hazard at 40.5%. In the sampled factories and specific sections, Kapkoros Tea Factory and Withering sections recorded higher mean equivalent noise levels (91.4 dBA and 97.3dBA) above exposure limits (90.0dBA) stipulated under The Factories and Other Places of Work (Noise Prevention and Control) Rules, 2005 while both PM2.5 and PM10 levels in sampled factories were below OEL and generally high at the sorting section (0.34mg/m3 and 1.035 mg/m3) but within the exposure limits specified under The Factories and Other Places of Work (Hazardous Substances) Rules, 2007. The study established that provision of PPEs, workplace occupational audits, risks assessments, occupational trainings and occupational examination of workers were the mitigation strategies employed by the factories in safety and health risks management. Level of education (p=0.0001) and work experience (p=0.0001) were statistically significant socio-demographic characteristics and predicted safety and health risks management. The study recommends the employer to institute tests on the efficiency and adequacy of all safety risk mitigation strategies. The study findings can be used for policy formulation and institutionalize changes when managing OSH risks in Kenyan tea industry.</p> 2024-04-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.