Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases 2020-07-05T19:02:41+00:00 Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases (ISSN: 2582-3221)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRID/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Infectious Diseases’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Recurrence of Falciparum Malaria under Coartem Treatment in the City of Mâncio Lima, Acre, Brazil: A Retrospective Study 2020-07-05T19:02:41+00:00 Andreus Roberto Schlosser Saulo Augusto Silva Mantovani Rayanne Alves de Arruda Felipe Monteiro de Araújo Rudi Nogueira Cássio Braga e Braga Breno Wilson Benevides Andrade Mardelson Nery de Souza Thasciany Moraes Pereira Antonio Camargo Martins Luiz Fernando Melo Lima Mônica da Silva-Nunes <p><strong>Background: </strong>Malaria remains a health problem in the Amazon and since 2005 the state of Acre has high incidence of malaria. Treatment with Coartem® for cases of <em>falciparum </em>malaria was introduced in Acre in August 2012. In Brazil, there is still no published study on the effectiveness of Coartem in endemic areas.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>This study was conducted in Mâncio Lima, Acre, in the western Brazilian Amazon region. All malaria cases notified in Mâncio Lima between August 01<sup>st</sup>, 2012 and October 31<sup>st</sup>, 2013 were revised. The therapeutic response to Coartem in Mâncio Lima, Acre, was evaluated. A recurrence of <em>falciparum </em>malaria was defined as a malaria case occurring in the same patient in a maximum interval of 40 days between the day treatments was started and the day the next diagnosis was made.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> All malaria cases (7,171) notified between August 2012 and July 2013 were revised. About 23.72% (n = 1,701) were <em>falciparum </em>malaria. There were six cases of recurrent <em>falciparum </em>malaria that can be classified as treatment failure. All cases had low parasitemia. The minimum and maximum interval between the first and the recurrent malaria episode was 17 days and 33 days. Age range was 9 to 50 years. Two patients were from rural areas, while all others were from riverine areas.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Possible failure to Coartem treatment was identified, however causes are not clear. Further studies are needed.</p> 2020-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Detection of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Using the Genotype MTBDR DNA Strip Assay and Lowenstein Jensen Proportion Method 2020-07-05T19:02:40+00:00 Bosede Oyewumi Amuda O. O. Oduyebo Philip Abutu <p>Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health issue in low-middle income countries. Accurate and timely diagnosis is key to effective management. Diagnosing Multi Drug Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is mostly done with phenotypic Lowenstein Jenson (LJ) proportion method with long turn around which delays treatment. The genotypic MTBDR plus was introduced by World Health Organisation (W.H.O) for the same purpose hence, this study aims to detect MDR-TB using both two methods. Sputum samples were collected from cases of pulmonary TB diagnosed with Genexpert and Ziehl Neelsen stain. Positive samples were subjected to MTBDR plus and the LJ proportion method with the LJ method considered gold standard. Chi square analysis was used to evaluate the Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive value (PPV), Negative Predictive value (NPV), of the MTBDR plus method compared to the LJ Proportion method. Kappa values were also estimated as a measure of agreement between the two methods. In evaluating the performance of MTBDR plus compared to the LJ proportion method, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid&nbsp; was&nbsp; 93.7%, 90.2%, 92.5% ,91.7% and 88.5%, 95.5%,92.0% and 93.3% respectively, while evaluation MDR-TB was 74.5%, 94.4%,&nbsp; 88.4% and 86.6% with a Kappa value of 0.85,0.84 and 0.71 for Isoniazid, Rifampicin and MDR-TB which indicate almost perfect agreement for both rifampicin and isoniazid and substantial agreement for Multi Drug Resistance (MDR). Compared to LJ proportion method, MTBDRplus performed well in the detection of drug resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB, hence, is a rapid and efficient tool for the diagnosis and initiation of treatment for MDR-TB.</p> 2020-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COVID-19: Global Preparedness, Challenges and Impact 2020-07-05T19:02:40+00:00 L. Macharia M. N. Macharia <p>Corona virus COVID-19 is a pandemic whose devastating effects were felt in all corners of the world and by all humanity of whatever age, gender, economic and social status from the beginning of January 2020 and the intensity increasing day-by-day. The patients that had symptoms were isolated while waiting for results. In some countries, self-isolation was encouraged while in others, people had to be put in quarantine facilities to cut down the spread chain immediately. Different countries identified quarantine centers where individuals were quarantined for 14 days upon which they would be tested. A philanthropist Bill gates, the Microsoft billionaire, committed himself to donating resources for developing a vaccine. Research centers directed their focus to establishing a cure or a vaccine for the killer virus.&nbsp; After four months of trials and tests, there was no sign of a cure. Many governments in the world applied a partial or full lockdown guided by the rate of infection and death. China was the first to call for a complete lockdown as it struggled with the new pandemic. The CoVID 19 pandemic has affected every facet of life; social, economic and mental. This has placed a lot of strain on governments and individuals. The economic status of many countries and individuals has been adversely affected and may take a long time before recovery.</p> 2020-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##