Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases 2023-02-01T13:09:20+00:00 Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases (ISSN: 2582-3221)</strong> aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRID/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Infectious Diseases’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Review of COVID-19 Management Guidelines 2023-02-01T13:09:20+00:00 Akashkumar N. Singh Nagendra Kumar Singh Swathi Tatineni <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected many countries across the globe both socially and economically and continues to be a major concern to the healthcare system. The majority of the patient groups that were affected were elderly patients and patients with existing co-morbidities such as such as diabetes; hypertension; cardiovascular disease; lung, liver, and kidney disease; cancer patients on chemotherapy; smokers; transplant recipients; and patients taking steroids etc. who were highly vulnerable and susceptible to the infection. Various protective measures such as quarantine from confirmed and suspected cases, nationwide lockdowns, etc., have been implemented in all the affected countries to contain the spread of the virus. Efforts have also been made to develop effective therapeutic strategies to stop the spread of the disease and minimize its high rates of morbidity and mortality especially considering the rapid evolution of the virus giving rise to different variants. A systematic review of the various guidelines published by well-known organizations such as Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the Ministry of Health (MoH) India and International organizations such as the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), National Institute of Health (NIH), and World Health Organization (WHO), for the management of COVID-19, was performed and a side-by-side comparison of various important aspects of these guidelines is presented in this review article. The review results showed that, despite minor differences in the terminology used for severity classification, SpO<sub>2</sub> levels, quarantine period, and criteria of severity classification these guidelines were mostly similar pertaining to the clinical signs and symptoms of COVID-19, diagnosis and testing criteria, criteria for severity classification, preliminary advice, risk factors, isolation, and methods of prevention of spread – criteria for home quarantine, use of face mask, social distancing, etc. While the majority of the differences noted were mainly in the COVID-19 management strategies and/or treatment recommendations. Overall, besides the limitations, the various guidelines as discussed in this article can still serve as an important tool to healthcare workers and caregivers by providing adequate guidance on the right management of COVID-19 at that time.</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COVID-19 Vaccination Concerns: Perspectives of Youths in a Developing Nation's Context 2023-02-01T09:22:07+00:00 Ugochukwu Samuel Aguwa Izuchukwu Azuka Okafor Echezona Ejike Udokanma Ikechukwu Jude Okolie Okonkwo David Izuchukwu Felix Ovie Ogbo Chioma Dorothy Nwosu Adline Uchechi Aguwa <p><strong>Background: </strong>Vaccine programmes' success lies in the acceptability and understanding of vaccine concerns among diverse population groups. This study investigates the covid-19 vaccination concerns among Nigerian youths.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We conducted a cross-sectional study of 631 youths (343 females and 270 males) between 15-44 years who were randomly recruited online and offline from the six geo-political regions of Nigeria. The questionnaire was administered between 10 February and 15 March 2021. SPSS (Chi-square and Cramer's V Statistic) was used to determine the association (p&lt;0.05)between covid-19 vaccination concerns and participants' demographic characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the 12 identified covid-19 vaccination concerns, side-effects (p=0.037), not necessary (p=0.007), negative reaction to vaccines (p=0.026) and assumed non-exposure to covid-19 patients (p=0.004),, were statistically associated with gender. For age, efficacy doubt (p=0.023), political/economic construct (p=0.023), family disapproval (p=0.018), and non-exposure to covid-19 patients (p=0.000) were statistically significant. Efficacy doubt (p=0.029) and the vaccine is a hoax (p=0.020) were associated with marital status. Side effect (p=0.182), a mere human experiment (p=0.777), doubt on efficacy (p=0.305), not necessary (p=0.457), political/economic construct (p=0.673), negative reaction to vaccine (p=0.162), and the vaccine may not be affordable (p=0.506) were not associated with the occupation. For the level of education, side effects (p=0.140), a mere human experiment (p=0.580), efficacy doubt (p=0.243), and negative reaction to the vaccine (p=0.386).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Amongst youths in developing nations, especially in institutions of learning, health promotion and vaccine advocacy strategies should be intensified. The strategies should incorporate reinstating trust in vaccine efficacy and education and target youths and their family health decision-makers.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## C-Reactive Protein as an Index of Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis 2023-02-01T13:08:33+00:00 Patricia I. Eniowo Abiodun J. Kareem Akinbowale R. Eniowo Ebunoluwa A. Adejuyigbe Korede O. Oluwatuyi Opeyemi O. Akinmadelo <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>:</strong> Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity/mortality and the definitive diagnosis is an isolation of the pathogen from blood culture which might take 2-7 days. A test for early confirmation of infection is therefore required. C-reactive protein (CRP) is therefore suggested as an early screening tool in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To determine the usefulness of CRP in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis among neonates.</p> <p><strong>Study design: </strong>This was a prospective longitudinal study.</p> <p><strong>Place of the study:</strong> Department of Paediatrics, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex Ile-Ife.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Consecutive neonates were recruited. Blood culture was done and CRP was done at contact and 24 hours. Data were analysed and <em>P</em>&nbsp;=&nbsp;.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 180 neonates comprising 106 (58.9%) males with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1 were studied. Thirty-two (17.8%) of the neonates had culture-proven sepsis with a prevalence of 10.1% among the inborn and 23.8% among the out-born with statistically significant difference (χ<sup>2</sup> = 5.638, <em>P</em> = .018). The means of initial and repeat CRP for subjects with culture-proven sepsis were 41.4 (23.6) mg/l and 10.6 (4.3) mg/l respectively while subjects without sepsis were 9.2 (11.3) mg/l and 6.1 (2.6) mg/l respectively (<em>P</em> &lt; .001). The CRP has a sensitivity of 93.8%, specificity 91.9%, negative predictive value 98.6%, and positive predictive value of 71.4%. The area under the curve for the receiver operator characteristic curve for subjects with CRP ≥ 10mg/L and positive culture was 0.909 (<em>P</em> &lt; .001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The CRP has a high sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value and can therefore be used to screen neonates with sepsis.</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Detection of a Case of Cysticercosis of the Breast: A Case Report 2023-01-25T11:11:46+00:00 Rakshita Ramesh Bhat Aparna Gangoli Hemanth Kumar <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease caused by encysted larvae of the nematode Taenia solium. It can have variable clinical presentations, neurocysticercosis being the most common among them. Extraneural cysticercosis is relatively rare. Among them, isolated cysticercosis of the breast is extremely rare and medical literature in its entirety describes but a few cases of isolated cysticercosis of the breast. They can be easily mistaken for a fibroadenoma or breast malignancy. This may lead to an undue psychological burden on patients. Hence, properly diagnosing cysticercosis of the breast is essential in alleviating this burden to some extent. We encountered one such case when a patient presented with multiple painless lumps in the right breast.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of Case: </strong>A 57-year-old female presented with multiple painless lumps in the right breast. On clinical examination, she was suspected to have numerous small fibroadenomas. She was sent for mammography in which two lesions showed features suggestive of fibroadenoma and the third, of an inflammatory abscess or inflammatory malignancy. She subsequently underwent a core biopsy and the histopathology report revealed that she had cysticercosis of breast.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the pork tapeworm.This case highlights the rarity and significance of properly diagnosing cysticercosis of breast. Mammography, high-resolution ultrasound or MRI can aid in the diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis is established by histopathological examination.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cysticercosis is a major public health problem, especially in the developing world. It must be given due consideration as a possible differential diagnosis in patients presenting with breast lumps in areas of high prevalence.</p> 2023-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##