Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases (ISSN: 2582-3221)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRID/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Infectious Diseases’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases) (Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases) Tue, 20 Oct 2020 07:50:11 +0000 OJS 60 Invasive Factors Recognition in Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolates from Patient and Environmental Samples in the Centre Region, Cameroon <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Aspergillus</em> section <em>Nigri</em> species are invasive opportunistic pathogens, seen in individuals with various immune disorders. The invasive capacity involves the production of varieties of enzymes such as lipases, phospholipase, proteases and hyaluronidase. The determination of proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and biofilm production in patient and environmental isolates approve the pathogenic strength of the species.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To evaluate the invasive capacity of<em> Aspergillus</em> section <em>Nigri</em> isolates from patients and environmental samples.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Our study is cross sectional and experimental, performed at the outpatient clinic of the otorhinolaryngology department of Central and University teaching hospital during a period of 12 months from March 2018 to February 2019.&nbsp; To determine the invasive capacity of <em>Aspergillus </em>section <em>Nigri</em> species, 400 samples were evaluated in the study (that is; 250 from patients and 150 samples from environment). Patient samples and hospital environment samples were evaluated by standard phenotypic methods for detecting of Proteinase, phospolipase, esterase and biofilm. The variables were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test of independent and SPSS (Version 16.0).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The isolates recovered from the patient sample shows maximum invasive capacity as compared to the environmental isolates, that is for 44 isolates;&nbsp; 42 isolates showed proteinase activity and biofilm production, followed by&nbsp; phospholipase activity 36, and then&nbsp; esterase 32.The isolates recovered from the hospital environment also showed the production of the various&nbsp; invasive factors, that is for 16 isolates; 15 isolates showed&nbsp; biofilm production,&nbsp; followed by proteinase activity 6,&nbsp; phospholipase 5 and esterase 4.The disparities of the invasive capacity in patient and environment isolates virulence were statistically significant for proteinase, phospholipase and esterase ( that is; p-value &lt;0.05). Majority the isolates recovered from patients and the environment were potential producers of biofilm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The isolates recovered from patients sample showed high invasive capacity as compare to the isolates recovered from the environment. This highlights the implications of phospholipase enzyme, proteinase enzyme, esterase enzyme and biofilm used by <em>Aspergillus </em>section <em>Nigri</em> isolates as means of survival in the host system.</p> Ekpo Alfred Itor, Michel Noubom, Claude Nangwat, Dougue Aude Ngueguim, Cyrille Levis Kountchou, Ngouana Kammalac Thierry, Dzoyem Jean Paul, Tume Christopher ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Various Clinical Scoring Systems in Predicting Progression and Outcome in COVID 19 Infection <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Comparison of various scoring systems and to find the better one for predicting the progression of disease in COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Observational.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration:</strong> Department of General medicine, Dhiraj hospital, a tertiary care center, located in Gujarat, India over period of 4 month (May-august 2020).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We included consecutive 300 adult patients of Asian ethnicity with COVID 19 infection, admitted in the hospital in ICU and Ward, who signed for participation. Various clinical scoring systems evaluated and compared for predictability of progression in COVID-19 infection which included two well-established and widely used systems- CURB-65 and qSOFA and two recent models, one being novel scoring model- CALL score used exclusively for COVID19 patients and other, the modified version of NEWS2 system. These scores were calculated for each confirmed COVID-19 positive patient on admission. WHO clinical disease severity grading was used to stratify patients and as reference for comparison with other scores.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 300 patients, 197(65.6%) were male and 103(34.3%) were female with mean age of 49.74±15.69 years. 95(31.6%) patients had co-morbidities, hypertension being the most common (21%) followed by diabetes (14.3%). Using WHO clinical disease severity, 160 (53.3%) patients had mild disease, 68(22.6%) had moderate and 72(24%) had severe disease. The four scoring systems were applied and compared for predictability. NEWS2 system had higher discriminative power(AUC,0.69; 95%CI, 45.5 -72.9%) followed by qSOFA (AUC,0.41; 95%CI, 35.3-48.2%), CALL score had lower discrimination (AUC,0.40; 95%CI, 33.5-46.9%) and CURB-65 had the poor values (AUC,0.35; 95%CI, 29.3-42.1%) in predicting the progression of disease in admitted patients. NEWS2 had sensitivity and specificity of 69.7% and 100% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In this study, four clinical scoring systems were compared on admission and NEWS2 system of risk stratification was found more accurate and better in predicting the disease progression in COVID19 positive patients.</p> Hetal Pandya, Arti Muley, Roop Gill, . Jeevana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 22 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Virulence Attributes of Clinical Candida glabrata (Sensu Stricto) Isolates in the West Region of Cameroon <p><strong>Background:</strong> Studies on the assessment of the virulence factors of <em>C. glabrata</em> sensu stricto strains are on the rise. This is partly due to the increase in recurrent <em>C. glabrata</em> infections that have contributed to increased mortality rates. Published data on the virulence characteristics of <em>C. glabrata</em> strains in Cameroon are very rare.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aimed at assessing some virulence characteristics, including the capacity to form biofilms and hydrolytic enzymes (protease, esterase and phospholipase)<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fifty-four (54) molecularly (MALDI-TOF) identified non-duplicate <em>C. glabrata</em> sensu stricto clinical isolates initially collected in a previous study, were used in the present study. These isolates were obtained from stool (S), urine (U), oro-pharyngeal (OPS) and cervico-vaginal (CVS) swabs of pregnant women, diabetic patients (both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus), HIV/AIDS and other patients who had neither of these diseases. Phospholipase, protease, esterase and biofilm activities were assessed using previously described methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our results revealed that our isolates were more able to produce phospholipase (37.04%) than they were able to produce protease (1.85%) and esterase (0%). The high producers of phospholipase (Pz &lt; 0.7) originated mostly from oro-pharyngeal swabs (41.17%) of some diabetic patients and pregnant women. Also, all our isolates were formers of biofilm, most (74.42%) of which had lower (&lt; 100%) biofilm formation activity compared to our reference strain. To be able to give a significant conclusion about the virulence characteristics of <em>C. glabrata</em> strains in the west region, we recommend that more studies be carried on a larger number of strains.</p> Claude Nangwat, Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Aude Ngueguim Dougue, Cyrille Levis Kountchou, Alfred Itor Ekpo, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Christopher Bonglavnyuy Tume ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 23 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000