Open Access Review Article

Chikungunya Virus: An Emerging Threat to South East Asia Region

Md Haroon-Or-Rashid, Md Monowar Hossen Patwary, Md Tariquzzaman, Ahmed Imtiaz, M. N. Rubaia Islam Bony

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2018/v1i113946

Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, positive-strand RNA genome, which was first recorded in Tanzania in 1952 and since then Chikungunya has been reported in Burma, Bangladesh, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, West Africa and the Philippines. In the recent decade, Chikungunya is a severe global public health concern. Chikungunya predominantly transmitted by bites of mosquitoes of the Aedes genus (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) the same mosquito that transmits Dengue fever, only female mosquitoes are infective because they require a blood meal for the formation of the egg. Vertical transmission occurs between mother and fetus. The infected Chikungunya mosquitoes can be found for biting throughout daylight hours especially early morning and late afternoon. The Chikungunya viral disease occurs in victims of all ages in both sexes. Following a bite by an infected mosquito, the disease manifests itself after an average incubation period of 2-4 days (range: 3-12 days), predominant clinical features include, high fever, joint pain, rash, myalgia etc. Serum specimen is collected within 5 days for the Reverse Transcriptase- Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT –PCR) to detect the viral RNA and ELISA/ICT detect anti-Chikungunya antibody (IgM and IgG) after 1st weak of infection. Specific treatment and a recognised vaccine are not available for Chikungunya, but symptomatic treatments are available like paracetamol and painkiller for high fever and local pain. Elimination of mosquito habitats is the best way to prevent and control of Chikungunya infection.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness about Hepatitis B and/or C Viruses among Residents of Adama and Assela Cities. Oromia Regional State, Oromia, Ethiopia

Birhanu Betela, Feysal Kemal

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2018/v1i113950

Background: The word Hepatitis means an inflammation of the liver, and caused by one of many things, including a viral infection, bacterial infection, liver injury caused by a toxin (poison) or even an attack to the liver by the body’s own immune system.

Objective: The study has been undertaken with the aim to assess the level of awareness of hepatitis B and/or C viruses and factors that may affect the awareness level among residents of Adama and Assela cities.

Methods: Two stages stratified random sampling technique with stratifications formed by sub city applied to this study. Classical Logistic Regression Model has been employed to predict the probability of awareness (dependent variable), on the base of a set of predictor variables.

Results: Educational level, age, monthly income, total family size, reading habit and use of media had shown statistically significant association with response variable (awareness level) for both Adama and Assela cities. Only about 45.8% and 44.9% of the respondents at Adama and Assela cities respectively are aware of the infectious disease while the rest are not aware. Although 33.5% and 33.3% of the respondents on Adama and Assela cities respectively were aware of the availability of vaccine for Hepatitis B, only 6.6% and 6.8% of the respondents are vaccinated for Hepatitis B.

Conclusions: Variables significantly influencing awareness of residents at Adama and Assela cities towards Hepatitis B and/or C were educational level, monthly income, reading habit, uses of media.

 

Open Access Short Communication

Qualitative Exploration of Ebola Risk Perception among Mortuary Workers in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

Helen Ngodoo Adamu, Mike Aneshimi Lawani

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2018/v1i113944

Aim:  To explore the risk perception of Ebola virus disease (EVD) among mortuary workers in Nigeria.

Study Design:  A qualitative research approach method, using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), conducted among 36 mortuary workers in Ibadan.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted between October and November 2014 in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.

Methodology: A structured moderating approach with a non-directive style was developed. A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) guide was used to explore participants’ ideas and opinions. The FGD guide consisted of five sections. Each section was framed to probe into the following issues:                  (1). Knowledge of EVD (2). Participant’s attitude to EVD (3). Adherence to infection control practices (4). Risk perception of EVD; and (5). Behavioural predisposition to the risk of mortuary-related infections. A total of six FGD sessions were conducted among 36 mortuary attendants, drawn from two government and four private health facilities in Ibadan. Six participants made up each focus group and one focus group discussion was conducted at a time in the respective health facilities.

Results: The qualitative exploration of mortuary workers revealed gaps in the knowledge of workers with regards to EVD, the high-risk perception of mortuary workers to Ebola virus disease and the unavailability of PPE in conducting autopsies and daily operations. In addition, a poor attitude to convalescent individuals and certain harmful behavioural practices in the morgue were revealed as key findings.

Conclusion: Efforts at bridging the knowledge gaps concerning EVD among mortuary workers should be sustained, despite the decline in Ebola outbreaks. It is also recommended that standard precautions should be followed when handling corpses due to the risk of infection.

 

Open Access Case Study

An Unusual Development of a Madura Foot: A Case Report

S. Benzarti, M. A. Triki, H. Kaziz, T. Mouelhi, M. L. Ben Ayeche, N. Naouar

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2018/v1i113936

Mycetomas are chronic inflammatory pseudo-tumoral lesions caused by fungal or bacterial agents developing in subcutaneous soft tissues and bone. Mycetoma is frequently located in the foot, realizing the Madura foot.

We report the case of a 42-year-old male farmer, who presented two years following an injury to the plant of the right foot. He already had two excisions elsewhere with recurrence and aggravation of the swelling.

He had a large painless subcutaneous swelling of his right foot with plantar sinuses discharging pale white and yellow grains. A surgical biopsy with histological study confirmed the diagnosis of mycetoma.

He received an antibiotic therapy consisting in penicillin G followed by amoxicillin then an association of penicillin G and co-trimoxazole during almost three years without any improvement. A below-knee amputation was performed complicated with necrosis and infection of the stump, which was resumed twice followed by an above-knee amputation.

Through this case of unusual development of a Madura foot we discuss the diagnostic and especially therapeutic difficulties of this chronic infection.

Open Access Case Study

An Interesting Case of Sphingobacterium Multivorum Neck Abscess

Muhammad Khalid, Imran Khan, Arsalan Hashmi, Majd Kanaa, Paul Lewis, Paras Patel

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2018/v1i113941

Soft tissue infections due to gram negative microorganism are very rare. Sphingobacterium multivorum related respiratory tract infections, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis and septic shock have been reported in literature mostly in immunosuppressed population. We present an interesting and rare case of neck abscess due to sphingobacterium multivorum in an immunocompetent patient, diagnosed by abscess fluid culture and neck imaging and treated with course of oral antibiotics.