Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients Attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

K. Mohammed, M. Kabiru Gulma, M. Yahaya, T. H. I. Spencer, S. U. Nataala, M. K. Garba, A. U. Imam, O. F. Aschroft, U. Micheal

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i129775

Background: Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the major health issue in developing countries particularly in Sub -Saharan Africa. It has been estimated to affect about 3.5 billion people globally and 450 million people are thought to be ill as a result of such infections, the majority being children.

Aims: The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted among patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Sokoto state, between May to November 2017.

Methodology: A total of 245 participants were enrolled in the study. Standard parasitological examination was carried out on stool samples using microscopic examination.

Results: Finding revealed that 29 (11.8%) were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Males  recorded  higher  prevalence  than  the  females  with 19 (11.9%)  and  10 (11.7%),  respectively.

Conclusion: Low level of  education,  occupational  status, poor water supply  were  among the significant  risk  factors  for  these  infections. Prevalence and  intensity  of  parasitic  infections  among  the  study community could be reduce by Creating awareness, level of sanitation, water supply and deworming programme  among  school  children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Some Antibiotics Resistance Genes in Multi-drug Resistant E. coli Isolates from the Urogenitals of Women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Josephine Anem Kpalap, Easter Godwin Nwokah, Moses Nnaemeka Alo

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i130091

Aim: The problem of antibiotics resistance has assumed a global emergency status. Whereas Multidrug Resistant (MDR) E. coli infection is common among human population in Port Harcourt metropolis of Nigeria, the genetic background of E. coli isolates in our locality is not well elucidated, hence this study.

Study Design: This was a randomized study of women, with indications of Urogenital infections, attending Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) Port Harcourt, Nigeria between July and December, 2017.

Methodology: Ninety-Seven (97) samples comprising of urine, high vaginal swabs, end ocervical swabs were collected from patients to assess for the presence of some antibiotic resistance genes in multi-drug resistant E. coli. Samples were processed following standard microbiological protocols. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed on all E. coli isolates. Following this, all Multiple Drug Resistant E. coli were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the detection of some antibiotic resistance-encoding genes- SHV, CTX-M, TEM. 

Results: Seventy-three (73) isolates, including 36 E. coli, were recovered from all the clinical specimens. Twenty-four (24) E. coli isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant. Sulphydryl Variable (SHV) was the most frequent resistant gene and was detected in 15 isolates. This was followed by Cefotaximase (CTX-M) in 10 isolates and Temoniera (TEM) in 5 isolates. Some isolates haboured more than one resistance gene. About 20% of the isolates haboured SHV/CTX-M; 2.5% haboured CTX-M/TEM, while no target was detected in one isolate.

Conclusion: This present study revealed that most E. coli isolates from the urogenitals of women within our locality, possess the ESBL genes which confers on them the Multidrug resistant status and this is a major challenge to maternal health.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Morbidities Experienced during and after the 2017 Flood in Port Harcourt

A. S. Amaechi, B. Ordinioha

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i130093

Background: Floods are a type of natural phenomena, identified as the world most common natural disaster with a major ravaging impact claiming lives, causing property damage, destruction of environment and infrastructure, and increasing health impacts. Port Harcourt Metropolis, the capital of Rivers State was greatly affected by the 2017 flood. Hence this study aims to determine the morbidities experienced during and after the 2017 flood.

Materials and Methods: The study was a combination of quantitative and qualitative research for effective triangulation. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Data were collected through self-administered semi-structured questionnaires and key informant interviews. Data was analysed using Microsoft excel for editing, SPSS version 20 for quantitative analysis and Nvivo version 12.0 was used for qualitative analysis.

Results: A total of 210 respondents were administered questionnaires but had response rate of 96.67% and a total of 3 key informants were interviewed with a 100% response rate. Amongst these respondents were 44.8% male and 55.2% female, with respondents’ mean age of 35.96±11.15. The frequencies of occurrence of morbidities of the residents and the 2017 flood were analyzed using percentage and chi-square test and the result showed a statistical significance (p < 0.05) between both variables.

Conclusion: The findings showed that the morbidities experienced during the flood had higher prevalence than post flood morbidities, but an exception was dark urine. These flood risks and morbidity outcomes can however be controlled through adequate preventive measures and recommendable interventions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp Isolated from Diarrhoeic Children in Selected Health Centres in Sokoto, Nigeria

Zainab Najim, Saheed Ladipo Kakako, John Ochei, Bello Rabiu Alkali, Kabiru Mohammed, Saraja Ahmodu Opaluwa

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i130096

Aim: To determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of E. coli and Salmonella spp. associated with childhood diarrhoea in our locality.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Medical Laboratory Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto between May and October 2017.

Methodology: A total of 236 faecal samples were collected from children less than or equal to five years and were processed, isolates were identified following standard bacteriological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using disc diffusion method.

Results: About 96/236 (40.7%) of the sample yielded growth of E. coli, and 14/236 (5.9%) yielded growth of Salmonella species. Salmonella spp were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and ceftriaxone whereas they demonstrated low sensitivity of 35.7%, 14.3% and 7.1% to cefuroxime, ceftazidime and cotrimoxazole respectively and none of the isolates was sensitive to ampicillin and augumentin. E. coli on the other hand were 73.9% sensitive to ceftriaxone, 69.8% to ciprofloxacin, 62.5% to gentamycin and 61.5% sensitive to ofloxacin. Sensitivity of E. coli to cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole was very low and none of the isolates was sensitive to ampicillin and augumentin. Conclusion: The prevalence of E. coli causing infectious diarrhoea among children in Sokoto is significantly high. Both bacterial agents presented with marked resistance to most antibiotics. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were found to be drugs of choice in the treatment of bacterial diarrhoea caused by both E. coli and Salmonella.

Open Access Short Communication

Pattern of Anti-microbial Drug Resistance in Childhood Typhoid Fever in a Selected Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

Hiba Siddiqui, Firdous Jahan, Muhammad A. Siddiqui

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i130092

Introduction: Typhoid fever is a major public health issue in Pakistan. Variations in clinical manifestations make diagnosis a challenging task. Over use of antibiotics make the organism resistant. Antibiotic resistance is currently the most threatening issue as regards to infection control and our study would be helpful in the understanding of this feature of the microbes. The main purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial drug resistance and sensitivity pattern in Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi.

Methods: This is a descriptive study carried out in a private hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. One hundred consecutive patients, children from age one day till 12 years admitted in the hospital with the history of fever and had positive blood culture for Salmonella typhi and S.paratyphi were included, 9 antimicrobial drugs were taken into account to check their sensitivity.  Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0). Data was expressed in frequencies and percentages.

Results: Most of the children belong to middle class 58% with 62% male and common age group (40%) was 1 day to 4 years. Nearly half of them drinking un-boiled water and had ladder pattern of high grade fever. Most pronounced symptoms were abdominal pain, nausea and anorexia. Resistance pattern was ciprofloxacin 100%, chloramphenicol 89.1%, Ampicillin 87.1% Ceftriaxone 76.2%, Cefixime 75.2%, Amoxicillin 65.3%.

Conclusion: Typhoid fever is most commonly observed with unhygienic practices, eating of unhealthy outside food and contaminated water. Pattern of anti microbial resistance gives us a little choice to select antibiotic for typhoid fever. Typhoid fever still remains the commonest bacteraemic illness in Pakistan with children being especially susceptible. Antimicrobial non-susceptibility continues to complicate management.