Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Surveillance of Common Peridomestic Wild Birds as Potential Hosts for Selected Zoonotic Viruses within Ibadan, Nigeria

O. S. Fasuan, T. A. Adeyanju

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i330102

Wild birds have been known to be carriers and reservoir hosts for many zoonotic viruses. This necessitated this study which is aimed at detecting some zoonotic viruses in the faeces of selected peridomestic wild birds within Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. Peridomestic wild birds are defined for this study as wild birds that live close to, or are kept close to, human habitations, either for commercial purposes, entertainment purposes or as pets. In carrying this out, faeces and cloacal swabs were collected from 110 birds from the avian families Columbidae, Psattaculidae, Anatidae, Ardeidae, Ploceidae, Phansianidae and Accipitridae across different locations across the city of Ibadan for a period of 12 months and screened for Alphaviruses, Flaviviruses, Rift Valley fever virus and Avian Paramyxovirus (Newcastle Disease Virus) using genus-specific and species-specific primers in a rtPCR method. The amplicons were subjected to 3 – 5% agarose gel electrophoresis for detection of the targeted amplified sequences. None of the targeted viral sequences was detected in the samples, showing the absence of the suspected viruses among the birds screened in this city. It is recommended that further surveillances of other species and genera of birds be continually carried out in order for early detection before potential outbreaks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transaminases and Alkaline Phosphatases Activities in HIV/AIDS Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto

Saheed Ladipo Kakako, Zainab Najim

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i330106

Background: HIV/AIDS causes life threatening opportunistic infections with increased morbidity and mortality. HAART intervention in HIV/AIDS patients has not only reduce morbidity and mortality but also cause hepatic injury and elevation of the liver enzymes.

Aim: To measure the liver enzymes in HIV/AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HIV/AIDS negative subjects.

Methodology: Seventy patients aged 20-50 years with asymptomatic HIV seropositive infection on HAART, 39 of whom are on first line drug and 31 on second line drug were assessed and 30 apparently healthy subjects (control) that tested negative for HIV 1 and 2 were recruited into this study. Venous blood was collected to determine the plasma levels of ALT, AST and ALP using kinetic method. Data were statistically analyzed using paired t-tests, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Result: The activities of serum ALT and AST observed in HIV infected asymptomatic patients on HAART (first line and second line drug) were significantly higher (P<0.001) than in the HIV negative (control) group. No significant difference was observed in ALP of HIV infected asymptomatic patient on HAART (those on second line drug) P>0.05 while there was a significant difference in those on first line drug (P=0.0058) when compared with the control.

Conclusion: Management of HIV/AIDS patients with HAART should be done with caution because hepatic injury may ensue due to the HAART.

Open Access Short Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance in Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae during January 2016 to December 2017 in Dr. Lal Path Labs, Delhi

Shalabh Malik, Puneeta Singh, Vandana Lal

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i330103

Aims and Objectives:  The aim and objectives of this study is to assess drug resistance pattern of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Dr Lal Path Labs, Delhi. We did retrospective study from January 2016 to December 2017 on 86 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Materials and Methods: At study sites, total 86 isolates from pulmonary and extra pulmonary grown on Columbia 5% sheep Blood agar (BioMerieux) plates after incubation for 24 to 48 hours at 36± 1°C in 5% CO2 incubator. Identified by MALDI TOF-MS (Bruker Daltonics) & Antibiotic susceptibility testing were also done using VITEK® 2 GP card. / S. pneumoniae susceptibility card (AST ST01 Card –BioMerieux, India) as per as CLSI M100-S-28.

Results: A total 86 isolates from pulmonary (21%) and extra pulmonary (79%) specimens were analysed for their antibiotic resistance pattern. 30% were from samples collected from children below between 0-10 years and 17.4% were collected from adults above 60 years of age.

The most prevalent source was blood (45.34%), followed by Sputum (20.93%), CSF (12.79%), Pus (n= 9.3%) throat (4.76%), ear (3.5%), nasal (2.3%) and eye (1.19%).

Evaluating the antimicrobial susceptibility with 12 antibiotics we found strains were most susceptible to Chloramphenicol (98.8%), Linezolid (93%) and Vancomycin (88.37%). However most resistance were seen in Erythromycin (62.8%), Tetracycline (59.3%), Co-trimoxazole (62.8%) and Penicillin resistance were (22.1%).

Discussion and Conclusion: In our study we found the infection is most common in extremes of age i e:  30% (0-10 y) & 17.4% (60-80y). Alarming thing found is the emergence of resistance in Vancomycin (11.62%) and Linezolid (6.97%) in India which is also reported by other studies.

We found Chloramphenicol and Linezolid are most susceptible drugs against Streptococcus pneumoniae whereas maximum resistance was observed for Erythromycin (62.8%), Tetracycline (59.3%), Co-trimoxazole (62.8%) and Penicillin resistance is very much present in pulmonary isolates in comparision to extrapulmonary isolates.

Open Access Short Research Article

Brief Epidemiological Report on Chikungunya Outbreak in Bihar, India in 2017: Implications for Control

Ragini Mishra, Navin Mishra

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i330104

Aims: The present study was done to identify the epidemiology of the disease outbreak in Bihar in 2017 and suggest remedial measures for the prevention of possible future outbreaks of Chikungunya.

Study Design:  Daily reports on Chikungunya were collected in prescribed format from the District Surveillance Unit, Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) that included case details from Govt. Medical Colleges and various Private Hospitals in the State.

Place and Duration of Study: Index case of Chikungunya was reported in Bihar, India on 15 Feb 2017. After that, few scattered cases were reported till 23 Aug 2017. Cases started increasing from 24 Aug 2017 onwards. From 15 Feb till 31 Dec 2017, total 1223 cases were reported from 32 districts in Bihar.

Methodology: The cases were analysed concerning time, place and person. Daily reporting on the health conditions of the cases and the status of the control measures like fogging and larvicidal spray in the affected area was monitored at the State level.

Results: Case Fatality Rate (CFR) due to the disease was Nil in the State. The outbreak peak laid from 3-Nov to 12-Nov when 218 cases were reported. Out of 1223 cases, 100% cases were ELISA confirmed. Almost all age groups were affected, but the frequency was greater in the age group 21-30 (25%)> 31-40 (21%)>11-20 (19%). Males (61%) were more affected than females (39%). Out of the total 1223 cases, 100% of the cases were reported from Govt. institutions. State Health Department, Govt. of Bihar took many measures to limit the outbreak, and through strengthening the surveillance and response activities, transmission of the disease was curtailed in the State.    

Conclusion: Patna district was most affected followed by Nalanda and Vaishali. Young adults of age group 21-30 were most affected. Males were more affected than females.

Open Access Case Report

Urticaria Associated with Amoeboid Forms of Blastocystis spp

V. Kantardjiev, A. Galev, V. Broshtilova

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2019/v2i330105

Blastocystis spp pathogenic potential remains controversial. Recently, many researchers have suggested the possible etiological relationship between symptomatic skin rashes and Blastocystic morphological forms, genetic diversity and microbiota interaction. A small observation series of acute and chronic urticaria caused by Blastocystic hominis in elderly patients has been herein presented. These cases emphasize the importance of adequate parasite verification under appropriate clinical settings and upon elimination of other more common causative factors as well as the significance of proper etiological treatment in urticaria patients.