Open Access Review Article

Eliminating Dengue Fever should be Easy Compared to Malaria – In a Malaysian Perspective

A. M. Meer Ahmad, Chew Aik Koay

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 41-71
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i230125

Introduction: In 1993, the International Task Force for Disease Eradication thought over and concluded that only six diseases are eradicable – but, malaria, dengue fever (and, dengue hemorrhagic fever) were not included.

In 2010, 99 countries reported 219 million cases of malaria and 660,000 deaths. In Malaysia in 2011, 5152 cases had been reported causing not more than 30 deaths.

Over 2.5 billion are at risk of dengue fever given the endemicity in excess of 100 countries, compared to nine countries in 1970. The WHO estimate 50-100 million cases annually globally, with approximately 500,000 dengue haemorrhagic fever, and an estimated 22,000 death each year. In Malaysia in 2017, there is found 83,849 reported cases of dengue fever with 177 deaths.

There is a compelling need to give thought here to an elimination/eradication programme on dengue fever in Malaysia, realizing there is presently a malaria-elimination programme already.

Aim: The Aim of this Review is to contemplate on the priority of possible public-health intervention of infectious-diseases, the International Task Force on Disease Eradication, and the three principle/indicators toward successful eradication/elimination programme, and the cost, beside describing the epidemiology and eradication/elimination of malaria in Malaysia, including the human and economic cost of malaria, in a comparison with dengue fever, including the dengue control & prevention programme and the potential in the innovative-methods, and why a dengue fever elimination programme is timely and imperative.

Methodology: This article is a Narrative Review, and the author focus the article around three articles published by the author in recent times on dengue fever, and two on malaria. Additionally, the author contemplate around relevant newer article by various author retrieved through PubMed and Google Search.

Results: Based on priority of possible public-health intervention of infectious-diseases by the International Task Force on Disease Eradication, and the principle/indicator(s) identified by the Task Force, and the Dahlem Conference, toward successful eradication/elimination programme, and the World Health Assembly on dengue fever, it is felt that a dengue fever elimination programme is timely and imperative, beside found very cost-beneficial.

Conclusion: Mankind can eliminate dengue fever, even if not actually eradicating the disease, in a very much feasible and cost-beneficial programme, beginning in every nation and every region of the world, prior to grouping to become a global-programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maternal Knowledge on Routine Childhood Immunization: A Community Based Cross-sectional Study in Rural Area of Mon State, Myanmar

Aung Zaw Htike, San San Myint Aung, Win Myint Oo

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i230121

Aims: To determine the knowledge on routine childhood immunization and the factors associated with it among mothers in rural area of Mon State, Myanmar during 2017.

Study Design:  A community based cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Rural area of Mon State, Myanmar, between June and August 2017.

Methodology: We included 302 mothers who had 18 to 23 months old children using multistage random sampling. Face-to-face interview was applied in data collection. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were utilized in data analysis.

Results: More than three fourths of mothers (76.2%) had good knowledge level on routine childhood immunization. There was a significant association between maternal knowledge and immunization status of their children (p<0.001). Logistic regression showed that the husband’s occupation was significantly associated with maternal knowledge (p=0.02).

Conclusion: Majority of mothers have good knowledge on routine childhood immunization. However, health education campaign should be intensified to improve their knowledge level, especially among mothers whose husbands are blue-collar workers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Risk Behaviors for HIV Infection among Undergraduate Students at a Historically Black University

Prince Onyekachi Andrew, Azad Bhuiyan, Jung Hye Sung, Anthony Mawson, Mohammad Shahbazi

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i230122

Aims: This study aimed to assess and compare risk behaviors for HIV Infection among undergraduate students by gender at a historically black university.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted from January 10, 2016 to September 30, 2016. Participants were selected through convenience sampling among undergraduate students of Jackson State University (JSU).

Methodology: Sample: We included 400 undergraduate students (141 males, 259 females; age range 18-57 years). Data were collected using a validated self-administered standardized questionnaire that was designed to measure their risk behaviors for HIV Infection.

Results: Over seventy five percent of undergraduate students in this study have had at least one risk behavior related to HIV infection transmission. The engagement of these students in HIV sexual risk behaviors were not varied by gender (Chi-square test = 2.76; P = 0.1). However, participants engaged in various risk behaviors related to HIV infection transmission such as multiple sexual partners, unprotected sexual intercourse, low and inconsistent condom use.

Conclusion: We concluded that about 75.8% of the students have had at least one risk behavior related to HIV infection and engaged in various risk behaviors related to HIV infection transmission. The engagement of these students in HIV sexual risk behaviors were not varied by gender. This investigation calls for sustained effective youth appealing interventions tailored toward addressing various risk behaviors identified in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes among African American Undergraduate Students in Jackson, Mississippi

Prince Onyekachi Andrew, Azad R. Bhuiyan, Jung Hye Sung, Anthony Mawson, Mohammad Shahbazi

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 29-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i230124

Objective: This study aimed to determine HIV/AIDS knowledge level, attitudes toward individuals living with HIV/AIDS and to explore the relationship between HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among African American undergraduates in Jackson, Mississippi.

Methods:  A cross-sectional method was used in this study. A total of 400 students were randomly selected from Jackson State University undergraduate students. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire on HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitudes toward individuals living with HIV and AIDS.

Results: Most of the students (96.5%) had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS, while some students had some misconceptions about HIV infection transmission. There was no significant difference between male and female students on HIV/AIDS knowledge in this study (χ2 = 3.05; P = 0.08). Most of the study participants (87.8%) showed positive attitudes toward individuals living with HIV/AIDS. However, there were some negative attitudes toward individuals living with HIV/AIDS among participants of this study. Male participants expressed more negative attitudes compared to female participants (19.1% vs. 8.5%, χ2 = 9.6; P < 0.002). HIV/AIDS knowledge was significantly associated with positive attitudes toward people living with the disease (p= 0.019, Pearson’s χ2 = 7.431).

Conclusions:  In general, we concluded that most students (96.5%) in this study demonstrated high levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitudes (87.8%). There was an association between knowledge of the disease and positive attitudes toward HIV/AIDS patients. However, there were HIV/AIDS knowledge gaps, misconceptions, and intolerant attitudes toward HIV positive patients also identified in this study. Hence, this study calls for more robust and age-appropriate HIV/AIDS awareness education programs geared towards reducing the impacts of negative attitudes toward individuals living with the disease, eliminating the gaps in HIV/AIDS knowledge and misconceptions identified in this study.

Open Access Letter to the Editor

Commentary on Article: Efficacy of a Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adolescents (NEJM, Nov 21 2019)

A. M. Meer Ahmad

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i230123

In this Letter to the Editor, this author comments on the article in the NEJM (Nov 21 2019) in the above title on the TAK-003 Dengue vaccine Phase III trial from a point of comparing with the predecessor, the CYD-TDV, beside comparing the TAK-003 and Severe dengue, and the TAK-003 and hospitalizations. The author also queries why the vaccine must be a chimeric-vaccine, questions the sample-size in the Phase III trial and questions the Serious Adverse Events reported observed in the trial. He write on Antibody Directed Enhancement in a relation to the TAK-003. The author make Additional Observation and seek certain Explanation.