Open Access Review Article

COVID-19; Plague of the 21st Century; Situation Update

Mirza Zain Baig, Zaitoon Zafar, Abeer Aziz, Umme Hani Abdullah

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i430132

The first known case of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus now known as SARS-CoV-2 occurred in Wuhan, China in late December 2019. In a matter of a few months, it has spread globally to infect more than 500, 000 people and has caused more than 20,000 deaths. It was officially declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization (WHO). To date, it has strained medical infrastructure, stagnated global economy and given rise to social stigma, fear, and racism. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of our current knowledge and understanding of this new disease.

Open Access Review Article

Spread of Corona Virus Disease (COVID – 19) from an Outbreak to Pandemic in the Year 2020

Muhammad Ghafoor Ali, Muhammad Owais Ahmad, Saima Narjees Husain

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 37-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i430135

Aims: The COVID-19 is most recently discovered of the corona viruses which caused respiratory infections consisting of two large scale pandemics MERS & SARS and found to be zoonotic in origin. The disease started from Wuhan local seafood market in China and infected 2,761 people. The 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of critically ill patients and has shown it 96% identical to bat coronavirus and bearing same cell entry receptor angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Corona means crown in Latin and it look like a crown under a microscope. Corona virus disease is an infectious disease where most infected people suffered from mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment however older people and those with underlying medical problems develop serious illness and can be prevented by washing the hands or using an alcohol based rub and not touching the face. Outbreak is small but unusual; the epidemic is outbreak over a larger geographic area while pandemic spreads to multiple countries.

Methodology: The duration of review for spread of COVID-19 was between 31st December 2019 to 11th March 2020. The 31st December 2019 was the reporting of first case of Corona Virus (COVID-19) by the China while 11th March was declaration date of Pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO).A total of 70 papers consisting of research article, review papers and news reports has been studied and evaluated.

Results: China on 31 December 2019 first informed about COVID-19 and WHO declared on 11 March 2020 that COVID-19 can be characterized as a pandemic. Scientists suspected that corona virus originated in a bat and before passing to human hopped to another animal. Thailand, Japan, USA, France, Australia, Germany, Italy and Spain reported their first case on 13, 16, 19, 24, 25, 27, 31 and 31 January 2020. In February the cases reported by Belgium, Egypt, Iran, Brazil, Pakistan, Netherland, England and Ireland on 4,14,19,25,26,27,28,29 while in March cases seen in Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Peru and Turkey on 2, 5, 6 and 10 respectively. WHO on 11 March 2020 assessed the outbreak as a pandemic with 114 affected countries.

Conclusions: The spread of disease as a pandemic occurred due to movement of carriers outside China. Strict quarantine needed to prevent spread of disease. The code of ethics for social distancing should be defined and strictly implemented. Selling, buying and eating of wildlife animals should be internationally banned.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge towards Prevention and Management of Dengue: A Cross-sectional Study among Dental, Medical and Pharmacy Students in a Private University, Malaysia

Abdul Nazer Ali, Pushpaa Asokan, Chew Jia Hui, Chuah Hui Ying, Nazer Zulfikar Ahmed

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i430131

Aim: The aim and objectives of the study were: 1) To assess the knowledge regarding dengue viral infection among undergraduate healthcare professional (HCP) students. 2) To investigate the association of socio-demographic factors towards dengue knowledge among the study participants. 3) To compare the dengue knowledge among the three HCP (Dental, Medical and Pharmacy) students.

Study Design: A cross sectional study design was used in the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in AIMST University campus, Kedah state, Malaysia between January, 2017 and June, 2017.

Methods: The study was conducted among HCP students using pre-validated questionnaire with knowledge as a single dependent variable. The questionnaire was distributed in class room setting after obtaining informed consent forms signed by participants. The summary statistics for categorical variables was used with chi-square test to see if there was any association between the variables. Inferential statistics was done using Spearmans correlation.

Results: Among the 636 participants, an overall good knowledge (≈90%) was observed regarding the cause, breeding sites and common clinical symptoms of dengue fever. However, poor knowledge was observed regarding the time of dengue mosquitoes bite (51%, P = .58) and transmission through blood transfusion (59%, P <.001). Very poor knowledge was observed regarding transmission through person to person contact (25%, P <.001). The median knowledge score was 12(3) ranging from 0 to 15. There was a statistically significant differences (P < .001) in response to 14/15 knowledge based items. Further, a statistically significant association between dengue knowledge score was observed among field of study (P < .05) and year of study (P < .006) variables. The Spearman's correlation test showed a weak positive correlation [rs(2) = 8.6, P < .01] and [rs(10) = 108, P < .001] between year of study and age categories for dengue knowledge scores.

Conclusion: Overall, the HCP students in AIMST University showed good knowledge score towards dengue however, educational intervention programmes can further enrich their knowledge in the prevention, treatment and management of this deadly disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retrospective Analysis of Rifampicin-resistance Pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients in Secondary Referral Hospital Offa, Nigeria

Pelumi Daniel Adewole, Muhammed Usman, Maroof Gbadebo Oyeniyi, Damilola Kazeem Suleman, Olayemi Olubunmi Alaka, Ibukun Adeola Adetoro, Olumiyiwa Samuel Alabi

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i430133

Introduction: Early detection of drug resistant tuberculosis with more sensitive and accessible method together with appropriate control measures among other factors are keys to interruption of transmission and mortality rate. 

Study Design: This study conducted a retrospective review of presumptive TB register of patients screened for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) using Xpert MTB/RIF assay at General Hospital Offa in Kwara State Nigeria between January to December 2018 in order to access the on-going efforts such as quarterly surveillance, improved infrastructural facilities and intense media advocacy on Tuberculosis by Kwara state government on prevention of Tuberculosis in Kwara State.

Results: Overall, 63 (10.6%) of the sputum samples collected were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis while 4 (6.3%) showed rifampicin resistance out 63 (10%) of patients positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is high recovery rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among women than men as this study recovers 52.4% and 47.6% in male and female respectively. Adults appear to be more vulnerable to TB and the vulnerability tends to increase with age.

Conclusion: This study documents low frequency of rifampicin resistance tuberculosis particularly within female population using highly sensitive and specific Xpert MTB/RIF in Kwara State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Pattern of Skin Diseases among School Age Children at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: A Hospital Based Study

D. D. Altraide, B. A. Alex-Hart

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v3i430134

Background: Skin diseases are common among school age children. In the absence of population based studies, data from hospital based studies could be a pointer to the enormity of the problem within the community.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and pattern of skin diseases among school age children at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of the records of all children aged 6-18 years seen at the dermatology clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2019. Socio-demographic characteristics and diagnosis were obtained from the clinic register. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: Three hundred and forty- seven patients aged 6 -18 years were seen over the period under review. Males were 165 (47.55%) and females were 182 (52.45%). The mean age was10.79±3.35 years. The overall prevalence of skin disease was 16.3%. The five most common diagnoses were Papular urticaria 10.35%, Scabies 10.08%, Atopic dermatitis 8.72% and Dermatophyte infections 8.17%. One hundred and two (29.4%) patients out of the 347 patients with skin diseases, had transmissible skin diseases of which scabies 37 (36.27%) was the commonest.The commonest Dermatophyte infection was Tinea corporis 15 (50.00%), followed by Tinea capitis 7 (23.33%).

Conclusion: School age children made up significant number of patients seen at the dermatology clinic at UPTH and almost a third of them had transmissible skin disease. An effective School Health Programme will curb the spread of transmissible skin disease within schools in Port Harcourt.