Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Meteorological Variables, Larvae Free Rate and Dengue Incidence in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Juhrati Raodatul Zannah, Sulistyawati Sulistyawati

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v4i430150

Aims: Dengue is a disease closely related to the environment, including several climatic variables such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed. This research attempted to illustrate the relationship between dengue fever incidence and climatic factors, larva free rate (LFR) or Angka Bebas Jentik (ABJ) in Yogyakarta city, Indonesia.

Methodology: Secondary data from meteorological agency and district health office were collected and analyzed using Spearman Rank Test and Multiple Linear Regression Test.

Results: Temperature, air humidity and wind speed were associated with dengue incidence in Yogyakarta city during 2016-2018. Correlation between rainfall and dengue was r = 0.27 and p value = 0.11; temperature and dengue r =0.62 and p value = 0.000; humidity and dengue r=0.38 and p value 0.02; wind speed and dengue r=-0.36 and p value = 0.03; r = -0.36. Larvae free rate and dengue r=0.04 and p value = 0.77.

Conclusion: Climate variables are an important factor affecting the incidence of dengue fever. To decrease the incidence, it is necessary to educate the community on improving awareness related to the mosquito breeding place.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytochemicals of Cassia occidentalis L. for their Binding Affinities to SARS-CoV-2 3C-Like Protease: An in Silico Approach

Tohmina Afroze Bondhon, Md. Aynal Haque Rana, Anamul Hasan, Rownak Jahan, Khoshnur Jannat, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v4i430152

Aims: Corona virus SARS-CoV-2, otherwise known as COVID-19 has created a pandemic resulting in social and financial crisis throughout the world. The virus has no known drugs or vaccines for preventive or therapeutic purposes. The objective of the present study was to screen phytochemicals from Cassia occidentalis L. in virtual screening (in silico) studies to evaluate their potential of binding to the main 3C-like protease of the virus and so stop its replication.

Study Design: Molecular docking approach was used for virtual screening studies.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Development Alternative between April and July 2020.

Methodology: Molecular docking (blind) were done with the help of Autodock Vina. We have used the pdb file (6LU7) of the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease or SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro (monomeric form) to study binding of the phytochemicals.

Results: Of the nine phytochemicals studied, the C-glycosidic flavonoids, cassiaoccidentalins A-C demonstrated excellent binding affinities to the protease. The compounds bound to the active site of the protease with binding energy values of -8.2 to-8.4 kcal/mol.

Conclusion: The in silico studies suggest that the compounds merit actual COVID-19 inhibitory tests and have potential for anti-COVID-19 use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early Lung Cancer Prediction Using Neural Network with Cross-validation

Shawni Dutta, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 15-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v4i430153

Lung cancer is known as lung carcinoma. It is a disease which is malignant tumor leading to the uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue. Lung cancer is caused generally by smoking and the use of tobacco products. It is classified into two broad Small-cell lung Carcinomas and non-Small cell lung carcinomas. Lung cancer treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Lung Cancer disease is one of the most prominent cause of death in all over world. Early detection of this disease can assist medical care unit as well as physicians to provide counter measures to the patients. The objective of this paper is to approach an automated tool that takes influential causes of lung cancer as input and detect patients with higher probabilities of being affected by this disease. A neural network classifier accompanied by k-fold cross-validation technique is proposed in this paper as a predictive tool. Later, this proposed method is compared with another baseline classifier Gradient Boosting Classifier in order to justify the prediction performance. Experimental results conclude that analyzing interfering causes of lung cancer can effectively accomplish disease classification model with an accuracy of 95%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Survey of the Recommended Infant Feeding Guidelines for HIV Positive Mothers by Primary Health Care Workers in Uyo, Nigeria

Emem A. Bassey, Udeme E. Ekrikpo, Anyiekere M. Ekanem

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 23-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v4i430154

Background: Safe and appropriate feeding is a key intervention that can prevent mother to child transmission of HIV. This study aimed at determining the level of knowledge, attitude and current practice of primary health care (PHC) workers in Uyo of the recommended infant feeding guidelines for infants of HIV-infected mothers.

Methodology: This was an analytical cross-sectional study carried out among 130 primary health care workers in 15 PHCs in Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires in English and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0.

Results: Nineteen (14.6%) and 111 (85.4%) respondents had a fair and poor level of knowledge of MTCT of HIV and infant feeding options respectively. One hundred and six (81.5%) and 100 (76.9%) respondents had received training on PMTCT of HIV and infant feeding counselling for HIV-infected mothers respectively. The majority of respondents exhibited positive attitude regarding infant feeding options for HIV exposed babies. One hundred and twenty (92.3%) considered it correct for an HIV-infected woman to breastfeed her baby and 125 (96.2%) considered breast milk alone adequate food for babies in the first 6 months of life. Predictor of negative attitude was lack of training on infant feeding counseling (OR 15, P=0.02, 95%CI 1.64-138.07). Most 107 (82.3%) cited exclusive breastfeeding with introduction of complementary feeds at 6 months as the most common method accepted by their clients.

Conclusion: Gaps in the knowledge of PHC workers in Uyo on MTCT and Infant feeding options and practice were identified which can be addressed by qualitative training, effective monitoring and supportive supervision.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey and In vivo Assessment of the Antimalarial Activities of a Locally Used Medicinal Plant (Senna occidentalis) for “Malaria Suspected” Fever in Potiskum and Nangere Local Government Areas of Yobe State

Abdullahi Muhammad Daskum

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v4i430155

Malaria is a life threatening infectious disease that has affected economic development in many parts of the world. Although preventable, malaria has claimed the lives of thousands of individuals in endemic African countries. Antimalarial drug resistance, lack of vaccines in clinical use as well as complexities of malaria parasite genomes remains a serious threat to malaria eradication efforts. The search for antimalarials from plant sources has yield significant success in drug discovery approaches. The specific objective of this study is to establish the acute toxic effect and antiplasmodial efficacy of crude methanolic leaf extract of Senna occidentalis in an in vivo assay. The four (4) days suppressive test was used in Swiss mice experimentally infected with chloroquine sensitive (CQS) Plasmodium berghei (ANKA). Results obtained revealed no lethality nor any sign of acute toxic reactions following the administration of 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract. Percent reduction of parasite growth obtained was observed to be dose dependent in all groups treated with the herbal extract and ranges between 66% and 73%. Relative to the negative and positive control groups, a significant reduction in parasitaemia (P≤ 0.01) was observed in all groups treated with the plant extracts. A gradual increase in body weight was observed in extract treated groups throughout the period of the investigation. The antiplasmodial efficacy observed may well be attributed to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and other important phytochemicals present. S. occidentalis is therefore, considered a good candidate source for development of novel antimalarial drugs.