Open Access Original Research Article

Invasive Factors Recognition in Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolates from Patient and Environmental Samples in the Centre Region, Cameroon

Ekpo Alfred Itor, Michel Noubom, Claude Nangwat, Dougue Aude Ngueguim, Cyrille Levis Kountchou, Ngouana Kammalac Thierry, Dzoyem Jean Paul, Tume Christopher

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v5i330166

Background: Aspergillus section Nigri species are invasive opportunistic pathogens, seen in individuals with various immune disorders. The invasive capacity involves the production of varieties of enzymes such as lipases, phospholipase, proteases and hyaluronidase. The determination of proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and biofilm production in patient and environmental isolates approve the pathogenic strength of the species.

Aims: To evaluate the invasive capacity of Aspergillus section Nigri isolates from patients and environmental samples.

Methods: Our study is cross sectional and experimental, performed at the outpatient clinic of the otorhinolaryngology department of Central and University teaching hospital during a period of 12 months from March 2018 to February 2019.  To determine the invasive capacity of Aspergillus section Nigri species, 400 samples were evaluated in the study (that is; 250 from patients and 150 samples from environment). Patient samples and hospital environment samples were evaluated by standard phenotypic methods for detecting of Proteinase, phospolipase, esterase and biofilm. The variables were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test of independent and SPSS (Version 16.0).

Results: The isolates recovered from the patient sample shows maximum invasive capacity as compared to the environmental isolates, that is for 44 isolates;  42 isolates showed proteinase activity and biofilm production, followed by  phospholipase activity 36, and then  esterase 32.The isolates recovered from the hospital environment also showed the production of the various  invasive factors, that is for 16 isolates; 15 isolates showed  biofilm production,  followed by proteinase activity 6,  phospholipase 5 and esterase 4.The disparities of the invasive capacity in patient and environment isolates virulence were statistically significant for proteinase, phospholipase and esterase ( that is; p-value <0.05). Majority the isolates recovered from patients and the environment were potential producers of biofilm.

Conclusion: The isolates recovered from patients sample showed high invasive capacity as compare to the isolates recovered from the environment. This highlights the implications of phospholipase enzyme, proteinase enzyme, esterase enzyme and biofilm used by Aspergillus section Nigri isolates as means of survival in the host system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Various Clinical Scoring Systems in Predicting Progression and Outcome in COVID 19 Infection

Hetal Pandya, Arti Muley, Roop Gill, . Jeevana

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v5i330167

Aim: Comparison of various scoring systems and to find the better one for predicting the progression of disease in COVID-19 infection.

Study Design: Observational.

Place and Duration: Department of General medicine, Dhiraj hospital, a tertiary care center, located in Gujarat, India over period of 4 month (May-august 2020).

Methodology: We included consecutive 300 adult patients of Asian ethnicity with COVID 19 infection, admitted in the hospital in ICU and Ward, who signed for participation. Various clinical scoring systems evaluated and compared for predictability of progression in COVID-19 infection which included two well-established and widely used systems- CURB-65 and qSOFA and two recent models, one being novel scoring model- CALL score used exclusively for COVID19 patients and other, the modified version of NEWS2 system. These scores were calculated for each confirmed COVID-19 positive patient on admission. WHO clinical disease severity grading was used to stratify patients and as reference for comparison with other scores.

Results: Of the 300 patients, 197(65.6%) were male and 103(34.3%) were female with mean age of 49.74±15.69 years. 95(31.6%) patients had co-morbidities, hypertension being the most common (21%) followed by diabetes (14.3%). Using WHO clinical disease severity, 160 (53.3%) patients had mild disease, 68(22.6%) had moderate and 72(24%) had severe disease. The four scoring systems were applied and compared for predictability. NEWS2 system had higher discriminative power(AUC,0.69; 95%CI, 45.5 -72.9%) followed by qSOFA (AUC,0.41; 95%CI, 35.3-48.2%), CALL score had lower discrimination (AUC,0.40; 95%CI, 33.5-46.9%) and CURB-65 had the poor values (AUC,0.35; 95%CI, 29.3-42.1%) in predicting the progression of disease in admitted patients. NEWS2 had sensitivity and specificity of 69.7% and 100% respectively.

Conclusion: In this study, four clinical scoring systems were compared on admission and NEWS2 system of risk stratification was found more accurate and better in predicting the disease progression in COVID19 positive patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virulence Attributes of Clinical Candida glabrata (Sensu Stricto) Isolates in the West Region of Cameroon

Claude Nangwat, Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Aude Ngueguim Dougue, Cyrille Levis Kountchou, Alfred Itor Ekpo, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Christopher Bonglavnyuy Tume

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v5i330168

Background: Studies on the assessment of the virulence factors of C. glabrata sensu stricto strains are on the rise. This is partly due to the increase in recurrent C. glabrata infections that have contributed to increased mortality rates. Published data on the virulence characteristics of C. glabrata strains in Cameroon are very rare.

Aims: This study aimed at assessing some virulence characteristics, including the capacity to form biofilms and hydrolytic enzymes (protease, esterase and phospholipase).

Methods: Fifty-four (54) molecularly (MALDI-TOF) identified non-duplicate C. glabrata sensu stricto clinical isolates initially collected in a previous study, were used in the present study. These isolates were obtained from stool (S), urine (U), oro-pharyngeal (OPS) and cervico-vaginal (CVS) swabs of pregnant women, diabetic patients (both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus), HIV/AIDS and other patients who had neither of these diseases. Phospholipase, protease, esterase and biofilm activities were assessed using previously described methods.

Results: Our results revealed that our isolates were more able to produce phospholipase (37.04%) than they were able to produce protease (1.85%) and esterase (0%). The high producers of phospholipase (Pz < 0.7) originated mostly from oro-pharyngeal swabs (41.17%) of some diabetic patients and pregnant women. Also, all our isolates were formers of biofilm, most (74.42%) of which had lower (< 100%) biofilm formation activity compared to our reference strain. To be able to give a significant conclusion about the virulence characteristics of C. glabrata strains in the west region, we recommend that more studies be carried on a larger number of strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Trichomonas SPP. from Penile Bulls Fluid in Iraq

Baqer J. Hassan

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 29-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v5i330169

Trichomonas fetus. lives on the surface .of the penis and. prepuce of the. bull and in the. reproductive tract of .the cow . Bovine .trichomoniasis is a venereal. disease of cattle. caused by the. protozoan Trichomonas. fetus . Samples: In our study 100 samples were collected from penal bulls which send to the slaughter house , the samples were collected randomly from mature bulls before slaughtering. For diagnosis of trichomoniases we made the direct method (using slise smear). The result show that there are (2) positive  samples of trichomonas Fetus found in preputial fluid of bulls penis , this indicate that bulls have trichomoniases because of the disease represent as sexually transmitted disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution Pattern of Soil-transmitted Helminths and Common Practices Enhancing Transmission in Owena, Southwestern Nigeria

Oluwaseun Bunmi Awosolu, Olubunmi Adu, Titus Adeniyi Olusi

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 33-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2020/v5i330170

Geohelminth infection are a major public health problem worldwide particularly in Africa. This study was carried out to investigate the distribution pattern of soil-transmitted helminths and common practices enhancing transmission in Owena, Southwestern Nigeria. Two hundred (200) soil samples were obtained from five different locations in Owena community and examined for the presence and absence of geohelminths eggs and larvae using Modified Cobbs decanting and sieving method. Different activities and practices that could enhance parasite transmission in the environment were investigated through a well-designed questionnaire. The result revealed that out of the 200 soil samples, 61% were contaminated with at least one parasite. The parasites encountered include Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichiuris trichiura, hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis. Hookworm have the highest contamination prevalence of 55.8%. Furthermore, the result showed that 167 (38.5%) of the respondents does not have appropriate means of waste disposal and as such 29 (14.5%) dispose their waste in the river and 165 (82.5%) dispose their waste materials in any available site such as bushes and backyards. In the same vein only         115 (57.5%) have toilet facilities while 82 (42.5%) does not have toilet facilities. With regard to the type of toilet used, 30 (15%) uses water closet toilet, 84 (42%) make use of pit toilet while 86 (43%) get rid of their faeces through any available mean including bushes and backyards. this result is an evidence that geohelminth is still prevalent and pose a significant health challenge to the residents of Owena community. Thus appropriate management strategy such as health education should be encouraged.