Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of the Population in an Urban District Facing COVID-19 in Kisangani, DRC

Issa Yakusu, Francis Baelongadi, Lobela Bumba, Osinga Bonyoma, Basandja Longemba Eugene, Muyobela Kapunzu, Ossinga Bassandja, Kayembe Tshilumba

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i230185

Objective: To determine the levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards Covid-19 among residents of the Plateau Boyoma neighborhood.

Methods: A questionnaire was designed and a cross- sectional survey was carried out among 214 households in the Plateau Boyoma district between September 27 and October 27, 2020. Participants were questioned on knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the COVID-19. The data was analyzed by SPSS.

Results: The majority of respondents were males aged 39 to 45 years. Most of the participants had higher education (68.7%). The main sources of information on COVID-19 were radio and television. The majority of respondents had a positive attitude towards complying with government infection control measures, 43.9% said they frequently wash their hands with soap and water, cover their mouth and their skin, respectively nose when coughing or sneezing. However, household concern about COVID-19 is very great. In this study, the surveys had a high level of knowledge about COVID-19 and adapted attitudes towards this disease. However, community health campaigns are necessary to have optimistic attitudes and practice appropriate intervention measures without misconceptions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Precancer Lesions of the Cervix among Treatment Experienced HIV Positive Women at University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

Olutosin A. Awolude, Sunday O. Oyerinde

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i230190

Background: Cervical precancer lesions, caused by persistence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, is common among women living with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.  However, there remains paucity of information on these dysplastic lesions especially in low- and middle-income countries of the world as there are few programmes that have incorporated routine screening as a standard of care.

Aim: To determine the pattern of precancer lesions of the cervix among treatment experienced HIV positive women in a large antiretroviral therapy programme in South West Nigeria.

Study Design: Retrospective review of clinical records.

Place and Duration of Study: HIV Programme in College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between January 2014 and December 2015. 

Methodology: A review of the Pap smear results of 468 women attending the antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic at the University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan over a 2-year period was done. The cytological results were analyzed with biosocial variables. Level of significance was set at 95% confidence level.

Results: The mean age of the participants reviewed was 37.1+/- 8.7 years.  The mean duration of ART among the participants was 19.5 (±14.0) months. The prevalence of any form of squamous Intraepithelial lesions (SIL) varied from 10.0% among those on ART for up to 12 months to 1.4% among those with more than 18 months of ART use (p=022) and polygamous relationship is significantly associated with dysplastic cervical lesions among this studied  cohort (p=0.043)

Conclusion: While ART appears to have anti-Human Papillomavirus (HPV) activities as observed in the pattern of cervical dysplastic lesions, polygamy, a common family setting in this environment seems to promote development of SIL among these WLHIV. These findings require further studies to corroborate in the light of limitations of difficulty in disaggregating the duration of HIV diagnosis from the onset of treatment as most were already on treatment before the screening and failure of baseline Pap smear test at the entry point to determine the rate of progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Assiut Province in Egypt

Mohamed Z. E. Hafez, Ahmed Y. Nassar, Gamal A. Y. Nassar, Nashwa F. Abdel Hafez, Heba A. Hamed, Tahia H. Saleem

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 19-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i230191

Background: Mortality, severity, and recovery of COVID-19 are the main concern all over the world and are still not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area.

Objective: To analyze the prevalence and the characteristics of COVID-19 in Assiut Province in Egypt.

Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study that includes RT-q PCR- confirmed COVID-19 cases during the period from March7th 2020 to September17th 2020 in Assiut Province.

Results: A total of 1201 cases are confirmed out of 2750 suspected cases.  The breakdown of the cases is as follows; 84% fully recovered, 14.6% died and 1.4% are still in quarantine at the time of writing this article. Severe cases occur in old ages with no deaths below 21 years of age. Male and female deaths are 59.4% and 40% respectively. The associated co-morbidities are mainly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellites, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and obesity.

Conclusion: The total percentage of infection in Assiut is 0.04%; it is lower than the percentage of the total infection in the country (0.1%). Respiratory failure is the leading cause of death in all patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, Perception and Practices on Rabies Disease in the GA East Municipality, Ghana

Oscar Vetsi, Eric Gyamfi, Emmanuel Yaw Sarfo-Twerefour

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 26-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i230192

Background: Rabies is one of the neglected tropical zoonotic diseases caused by a virus. It belongs to the Rhabdoviridae [1]. It is a disease that is commonly found in animals but can easily effect human [2]. Where there are animal reservoirs, rabies is commonly spread. The general objective of this study to evaluate differences in knowledge, attitude and perception about rabies, among the residence in Ga East.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was used in this study using purposive sampling technique. Data was collected by interviewing study participants using OKD Collection and also STATA version14.2 was used for data analysis

Results: A total of 475 respondents were involved in the study with 354 (74.53%) males and 121(25.47%) as females. Of this, majority of the participants (93.47%) own a dog against 6.53% who did not own a dog. Dog is own in the community basically for security purposes (77.25%). Few own dog for leisure.  The study document less than 50% of the respondents [186 (39.16%)] resort to local drug stores drug store for first aid following a dog bit. Seeking veterinary attention (12.84%) and properly clearing of wound (8.84%) was not a common practice. Participants were of the opinion that tetanus vaccination should be done first (29.05%). Most of the participants have heard about rabies (96.42%) and showed various degree of knowledge on source of rabies, common animals associated with rabies, symptoms of rabies. Among some other practices, any identified rabid dog is killed as indicated by majority of the participants (52.63%). Most participants (71.58%) knew that rabies vaccination serves as preventive measures against rabies and further perceived all dogs must be vaccinated (38.32%). Of the total respondents, most (63.74%) never sent their dog for routine medical check-up nor vaccinated their dogs (70.95%).

Conclusion: The study revered that dog owners do not provide adequate care for their dogs. In addition to low coverage of dog vaccination and human anti rabies vaccination in the community which poses a greater threat to the lives community, the potential for increased spread of the diseases is high due to inadequate level of knowledge, poor perceptions, and attitudes towards rabies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct Saliva versus Conventional Nasopharyngeal Swab qRT-PCR to Diagnose SARS – CoV2: Validity Study

Michael L. Tee, Paulyn Jean R. Ubial, Diana Rose E. Ranoa, Cherica A. Tee, Aedrian A. Abrilla, Lawrence John Paulo L. Trinidad, Charlotte M. Chiong, Regina P. Berba, Ryner Jose D. Carrillo, Maria Cecilia F. Lim, Leslie Michelle M. Dalmacio

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 37-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i230193

Background: Saliva has been demonstrated as a feasible alternative specimen to nasopharyngeal swab for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using real-time or quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method that bypasses the need for explicit viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction.

Aim: To assess the diagnostic validity of direct saliva-to-qRT-PCR in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 compared to conventional nasopharyngeal swab qRT-PCR.

Methodology: Self-collected saliva samples were processed by heating at 95oC for 30 minutes followed by addition of buffer and detergent while viral RNA from nasopharyngeal swabs were extracted using the Sansure Biotech sample release reagent.  Paired samples were used as templates for qRT-PCR using the Sansure Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Kit and Sansure Biotech MA6000 Real-Time Quantitative PCR System. Direct saliva-to-qRT-PCR was compared to nasopharyngeal swab qRT-PCR in terms of diagnostic validity and agreement parameters, and both platforms were compared separately in terms of similar parameters with a composite reference standard (CRS) wherein the criteria for a positive result is SARS-CoV-2 detection in at least either nasopharyngeal swab or saliva.

Results:  Of the 238 nasopharyngeal swab-saliva pairs tested, 20 (8.4%) nasopharyngeal swab and 24 (10.1%) saliva specimens tested positive. We documented a sensitivity of 85.0% (95% CI: 62.1%, 96.8%), specificity of 96.8% (95% CI: 93.5%, 98.7%), accuracy of 95.8% (95% CI: 92.4%, 98.0%) and Cohen Kappa of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.90) when direct saliva-to-qRT-PCR was compared to the conventional platform. When the two platforms were individually compared to the CRS, numerically higher but not statistically significant sensitivity and accuracy were noted for direct saliva-to-qRT-PCR than for nasopharyngeal swab qRT-PCR.

Conclusion: Direct saliva-to-qRT-PCR is non-inferior to nasopharyngeal swab qRT-PCR for detecting SARS-CoV-2 using the Sansure Novel Coronavirus Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Kit.