Open Access Review Article

The Epidemiology Pattern of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Diagnostic, Transmission and Prevention in Nigeria-Past and Present

C. E. Oguh, E. N. O. Obiwulu, I. M. Sheshi, S. E. Ameh, C. O. Okpaka, T. J. Oluwadepo, U. M. Ejiofor

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 29-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i330198

Human immune Virus/Acquire immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic is one of the major public health challenges faced by Nigeria. The review present the Epidemiology of Human immune Virus/Acquire immune deficiency syndrome, diagnostic and Prevention in Nigeria. The method use was based on the data obtain in Nigeria. Nigeria’s first two AIDS cases were diagnosed in 1985 in Lagos. Today, Nigeria’s epidemic is characterized as one the most rapidly increased rates of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa. Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). Recently, it is estimated that about 3, 229, 757 people live with HIV in Nigeria and about 220, 393 new HIV infections occurred in 2013 and 210,031 died from AIDS- related causes. As of 2020 in Nigeria, the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15–49 was 3.1 percent Nigeria has the second-largest number of people living with HIV. In some states, the epidemic is more concentrated and driven by high-risk behaviors, while other states have more generalized epidemics that are sustained primarily by multiple sexual partnerships in the general population. HIV is spread by sexual contact with an infected person and by blood or body fluid exchange through sharing of contaminated needles or transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors. Infants born to HIV-infected women may become infected in gestation, during birth, or through breastfeeding. An antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV seroprevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that 3.5 million Nigerian adults and children were living with HIV/AIDS by the end of 2001. Among sex workers in Lagos, HIV prevalence rose from 2 percent in 1988–89 to 12 percent in 1990–91. By 1995–96, up to 70 percent of sex workers tested positive. As a result of the epidemic, the crude death rate in Nigeria was about 20 percent higher in 2000 than in 1990. In 2019, 170,000 adults and children died of AIDS and UNAIDS estimated that 1 million children orphaned by AIDS were living in Nigeria. The main thrust of HIV prevention strategies in Nigeria is based on the following: Information, Education, and Communication; Condom Promotion; Behavior Change; and Vaccine Development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transgenesis of Bioluminescence (BL) Gene and Its Potential Use for Malaria Residual Transmission Issue and Other Vector Borne Diseases: New Considerations for Vector and Vector Borne Diseases (VBD) Control

G. Carnevale, P. Carnevale

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 6-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i330196

The present article considers the potential of transgenesis of the bioluminescent gene for malaria and other vector borne diseases (VBD) control. Vector control is an important component of every vector control operations for the vector borne disease control. Actually the bioluminescence phenomena and the green fluorescent protein GPF open great field of researches and “On December 10, 2008 Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP". Bio-molecular technologies and transgenesis open the field for getting BL mosquitoes such as Plasmodium (several references) for “Transmission Reducing Activity” (TRA) without any hazard on human beings and ecological level. For exemple BL mosquitoes would be of paramount importance for mark-release-recapture becoming easier to implement and giving more relevant and reliable data on relation between density (size of the population) and distance (and wind) as the vector population size decrease with increasing distance from the source of production (breeding site) or release point. BL appeared already of great interest to understand the relation vector/parasite and to assess transmission intensity. Our idea is to genetically produce “Bioluminescent Mosquitoes” allowing a better identification of their presence, behavior, densities, infected specimens, risk of transmission before/after vector control operations which could be greatly improved thanks to the targeting of mosquitoes resting site or flight range and any other biological component.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Healthcare Providers on Covid-19 in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo

Ossinga Bassandja, Issa Yakusu, Muyobela Kampunzu, Lofoli Bokota, Baelongandi Folo, Gilbert Bokungu Isongibi, Losimba Likwela

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i330197

Objective: Our study aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of healthcare providers towards Covid-19 in general hospitals in the city of Kisangani.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among the providers of these general hospitals. KAP on Covid-19 were assessed using a survey questionnaire.

Results: Female providers were predominant (64%). The majority of respondents were between 25 and 34 years old. 21 were general practitioners (16.7%). The majority had sufficient knowledge (92.2%) provided mainly by radio and television. 77 had a negative attitude towards the possibility of containing the disease; and 88.1% had good practices with regard to Covid-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Arterial Blood Gas Analysis of Critically Ill Corona Virus Disease 2019 Patients

Jitendra Lakhani, Sajani Kapadia, Hetal Pandya, Roop Gill, Rohit Chordiya, Arti Muley

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 51-63
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i330199

Background/Aims: The aim of present study was to find out profile and sequential pattern of Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) in critically ill Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.

Study Design: Observational prospective study.

Methodology: A total of 80 Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) positive cases; that needed ICU admission for their life-threatening conditions were included in this study done at teaching hospital of Gujarat, India. Non consenting patients and patients who could not be followed up as per protocol were excluded. Data of Arterial Blood Gas (ABG), performed on admission, day 5 and day 10 were taken for the analysis. Patients were followed up till they remained in ICU.

Results: Of 80 patients, 3 patients had normal, 24 patients (30%) had primary disorder on ABG while 53 patients (66.25%) had mixed disorders. The most common ABG abnormality observed was respiratory alkalosis with metabolic acidosis in 16 patients (20%) while respiratory alkalosis with metabolic alkalosis in 15 patients (18.75%). There was difference in ABG pattern observed among survivors and non-survivors (P=.04); of which conspicuous was presence of “respiratory acidosis with metabolic acidosis” in 5 non-survivors (15.63%), which was not seen in survivors. Of 80 patients admitted in COVID ICU; 2 improved after day 1; 6 after day 5; 40 after day 10, making total of 48 patients surviving COVID critical condition. Of 32 non-survivors, 14 died within twenty-four hours of admission, 14 within first 5 days and 04 after 10 days of ICU stay.

Conclusion: ABG done on admission and serially in severe COVID-19 patients gives useful information on underlying pathophysiology. Mixed ABG pattern was more common than single disorder which can be sign of multi-organ involvement.  Respiratory acidosis with metabolic acidosis was observed significantly higher in non-survivors. Respiratory alkalosis as a part of single or mixed pattern on ABG was the most common pattern found in critically ill COVID patients.

Open Access Case Study

Acute Ischemic Stroke in COVID-19 Patient with Lung Collapse: A Case Report

Mahpara Nawazish, Sana Iqbal, Mujeeb Ur Rehman Abid Butt

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i330194

Novel corona virus 2019 also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS COV2] is enveloped non segmented ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus. Acute ischemic stroke remains emergency during covid19 pandemic [1] Here we present a case of a woman with COVID 19 who presented to us with symptoms of altered state of consciousness (ASOC), cough, fever, dysarthria, right sided body weakness and massive bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA)/ anterior. Our case was unique in the sense that it showed drastic central nervous system (CNS) damage in the presence of coronavirus infection. There are a few cases of patients who develop stroke after COVID 19 infection.

Aims: Clinicians need to be aware of possible causes of unconsciousness in coronavirus disease (COVID 19) patients, particularly as delirium appears to be common complications to find out the association between stroke and COVID 19 and its impact and mortality.

Case Presentation: A 70 years old lady presented to us with symptoms of stroke like ASOC, right sided body weakness, dysarthria, and symptoms of pneumonia like mild cough and fever later which turned out to be COVID 19. Clinicians need to be aware of possible causes of unconsciousness in coronavirus disease (COVID 19) patients, particularly as delirium appears to be common complications to find out the association between stroke and COVID 19 and its impact and mortality.

Discussion: Bilateral ischemic stroke is relatively uncommon presentation in general population and is usually the result of cardio embolic cause such as atrial fibrillation and recent myocardial infarction. While this patient had pre existing risk factors for stroke such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and old age and her electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm.

Conclusion: COVID-19 may be a risk factor or aggravating factor for stroke.