Open Access Review Article

A New, Cheap, Easy to Use, Foldable and Portable Autocidal Ovitrap for Aedes Control at Community Level

G. Carnevale, P. Carnevale

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 9-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i430201

Except for Yellow Fever there is still no operational vaccine, the Dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV, sold under the brand name Dengvaxia©) raised several issues and vaccination campaign were stopped. On the other hand there is still no specific treatment for the main arbovirus transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus such as dengue, Chikungunya, Zika and recent outbreaks occurred all over the World. For WHO “vector control is the key strategy to control or prevent the transmission of dengue (and other arbovirus) but clearly there is a need for improved new vector control approaches. Only another one vaccine is available against arbovirus is against Japanese Encephalitis transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

In line with this recommended approaches of new tools to be used at community level we successfully developed and implemented in Angola a “Very Simple Ovitrap Model” which actually “collected” eggs of Aedes aegypti warning for risk of arbovirus outbreaks, which, unfortunately, occurred few years later. These ovitraps were transformed as a tool for vector control in adding few drops of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in the water and several hundred of tests showed that not a single larva of Aedes aegypti was ever found in these “Bt fitted simple ovitrap”.

To solve some operational issues (transport) we tested in Bali during 3 years several size and color of foldable container prepared as ovitraps and put in a garden among grass, banana trees etc, we thus collected eggs of Aedes albopictus, important vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), a serious threat in Asia, and preliminary tests (unpub.) showed some resistance to insecticide increasing the need for control.

According to these trials, made in complete field conditions, we proposed a new foldable model of ovitrap as a vector control tool presented as a kit to be used at community level with a 3 steps action: open it/fill it/use it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Pattern and Clinical Variations of Dermatophytosis in Patients with HIV Infection at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt

Dasetima D. Altraide, Mary N. Amaewhule, Bolaji Otike-Odibi

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 33-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i430203

Background: Immunosuppression due to various etiologies has been associated with the occurrence of dermatophytosis. Several studies in the past have demonstrated that Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for the acquisition and severity of dermatophytosis. This study examined the prevalence and clinical variations of dermatophytosis amongst HIV positive patients seen in Port-Harcourt, Southern Nigeria.

Methods: Between July 2019 and 2020 173 seropositive cases and 173 seronegative controls were recruited for this study. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire and thereafter screened for the presence of dermatophytosis and sent for mycology studies.

Results: There was a higher prevalence of dermatophytosis in the HIV seropositive group when compared to the control group. Most of the lesions seen were not markedly different from that seen in immunocompetent persons. 41.65% of the cases were found among those with CD4 cell counts below 200. Tinea corporis was the commonest lesion seen (50%).  Trichophyton species was the commonest dermatophyte isolated, followed by Microsporum spp.

Conclusion: Prevalence of dermatophytosis is significantly higher in HIV infected patients and commonly occurs in advanced stages of the disease. Tinea corporis is the most common lesion in this group of patients and Trichophyton spp. a common causative agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolated from HIV-Positive Patients in Rivers State, Nigeria

M. A. Alex-Wele, O. K. Obunge

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 44-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i430204

Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis is a major challenge in the global bid to control the disease burden and improve treatment outcomes of DRTB infected individuals.

Aim: To determine the molecular characteristics and pattern of drug resistance to first line anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV sero-positive patients in River State using line probe assay.

Methods: The Line Probe Assay (LPA) was used to assess the drug resistance pattern and gene mutations in 260 sputum specimens collected consecutively from 260 adult, HIV sero-positive subjects presenting with symptoms suggestive of TB in clinical settings across Rivers State, Nigeria.

Results: The results showed a 61.2% (n = 159) prevalence of TB among all study subjects. LPA analysis showed that 16 (10.1%) were multidrug resistant strains, 17 (10.7%) Rifampicin (RIF) monoresistant strains, 24 (15.1%) Isonaizid (INH) monoresistant strains and 102 (64.2%) drug susceptible strains. Among all 33 RIF-resistant strains, 24 (75%) had a mutation in rpoB S531L at the MUT3 band. Another mutation was observed at rpoB H526D (1/17) in RIF-monoresistant strains but not in MDR-TB strains.  In INH resistant strains, mutations were observed at the katG gene [32/39 (82.1%)] which constituted 13/15 (86.7%) in MDR-TB strains and 19/24 (79.2%) in INH-monoresistant strains (p =0.002). Overall frequency of inhA mutation was 6/39 (15.4%); MDR-TB strains [2/15 (13.3%)] and INH-monoresistant strains [4/24 (16.7%), p = 0.2]. Combined KatG and inhA mutation was found in 1/39 (2.6%) of INH-monoresistant strains and in none of MDR-TB strains. Of the single inhA mutation bands, only 1/39 (4.2%) MUT 3B (T8A mutation) was observed in INH-monoresistant strains.

Conclusion: The results showed that drug-resistant TB is prevalent in Rivers State with various gene mutations observed in the different TB strains isolated, making LPA analysis a necessity in the bid to improving prevention and control efforts in the region.

Open Access Case Study

Vibrio fluvialis – Unusual Case of Cellulitis Leading to Sepsis

Y. Shravan, Roop Gill, Vivek Vaswani, Sucheta Lakhani, Jitendra Lakhani

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i430200

Vibrio fluvialis, an enteric, Gram negative bacterium commonly isolated from sewage/ sea water contaminated with human and animal’s faeces. Infections with this unusual organism can cause cholera like bloody diarrhoea and also wound infection. Vibrio fluvialis causing skin infection and sepsis is uncommon with very few cases reported worldwide. It is an emerging pathogen with distinct features as compares to the other species of Vibrio group of bacteria in terms of high virulence and adaptability in hostile environments. Here is a case report of skin and soft tissue infection by Vibrio fluvialis, in a patient suffering from severe pedal oedema due to nephrotic syndrome and right lower limb deep vein thrombosis .

Case Report: A young male, farmer, presented with ascites, pedal oedema, puffy face due to nephrotic syndrome.He developed skin and soft tissue infection resulted from skin atrophy and ulcer due to pedal oedema as well as right limb deep vein thrombosis . He had high grade fever, leucocytosis, anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, right leg cellulites and features of sepsis requiring wound debridement. Immunodeficiency and corticosteroids associated immunosuppression were absent in this patient. He was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease.

Conclusion: Vibrio fluvialis infection can occur due to wound contaminated with sewage water leading to skin and soft tissue infection and life threatening sepsis.

Open Access Case Study

A Case of Multilevel Airway Obstruction Secondary to Paradoxical Reaction to Anti TB Drugs in a Non HIV Patient with Tracheobronchial and Cervical Tuberculous Lymphadenitis

A. Kanivannen, A. Suhana, P. Chenthilnathan, S. Alazzawi, S. Avatar

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 29-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v6i430202

A case report of a young male diagnosed as cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis presenting with rapidly enlarging neck nodes causing airway obstructing secondary to paradoxical reaction to antituberculous drugs. This phenomenon is rare in HIV negative patient. He also had myriad of symptoms and multilevel obstructions. In this case report we discuss the presentation of patient to our center with the management and possible pitfalls.