Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Contaminants on Exposed Surfaces and Their Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns at the Benjamin Mkapa Hospital, Dodoma-Tanzania

Alphonce B. Chandika, Reuben S. Mkala, Bushi Lugoba, Benjamin C. Kipilipili, Witness Saitot, Charles E. Kamkunguru, Susu J. Susu, Mkhoi L. Mkhoi, John B. Lindi, Lucas E. Matemba

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i130205

Background: Hospital acquired infection pose a great challenge in provision of healthcare services to many settings  particulary in developing countries where there is limited availability of resources. The roles played by exposed surfaces in spreading of potential bacterial pathogens within the hospital environment have certainly contributed to the increased burden of bacterial infectious diseases such as morbidness, death as well as cost imolecation in healthcare. Our study aimed to determine common bacteria isolated on exposed surfaces and the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns.

Methods: A sum of 516 specimens gathered and enrolled for study at Benjamin Mkapa Hopsital (BMH).  The swab specimens were continuously gathered (collected) from different exposed objects in hospital environmental surfaces. All microbiological procedures or tests were performed using appropriate standard operating procedure. The obtained data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0.

Results: Among 516 samples, 317 (61.4%) were positive with variety of bacterial isolates from different sites. Out of 317 positive cultures, 120 (37.9%) Staphylococcus aureus, 97 (30.6%) E. coli, 28 (8.8%) Enterobacter aerogenes, 25 (7.9%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 23 (7.3%) other Citrobacter species, 20 (6.3%) Citrobacter freundii, 3 (0.9%) Morganella morganii and 1 (0.3%) Serratia mercesens were isolated from different source of exposed surfaces at BMH. Serratia mercesens were highly (100%) resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents including erythromycin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin, penicillin,ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, ampicillin, azithromycin and cotrimoxazoleTrimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Conclusion: High levels of potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated in swab specimens from a wide range of exposed surfaces at BMH. Variable pattern of antiobiotic resistance were observed among bacterial isolates with alarming levels demonstrated by isolates of Serratia mercesens which is amongst the common causes of surgical site infections. This findings call for improved actions for infection prevention and control measures at BMH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urogenital Schistosomiasis Study in a Rural Community, North West Nigeria

M. U. Iduh, U. H. Bwari

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i130206

Background: Bilharzia is a parasitic disease caused by the trematode worms (schistosomes). It is the most important and prevalent of water-borne parasitic disease.Schistosomiasis affects between 200 million and 300 million people in 77 countries throughout the world and is a significant cause of disease in areas of endemic infections especially among children.

Aims: The study was aimed to determine the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among people in Goronyo and taloka communities in Sokoto State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Investigative study.

Place and duration of study: The samples were collected from  Goronyo and Taloka communities of Goronyo local government Area of Sokoto State between October and  December, 2020.

Methodology: 300 water samples were obtained from domestic water sources. 175 of the samples were collected from river, 77 from borehole and 48 from well. Samples were investigated for the presence of parasites using standard parasitological techniques. Samples were subjected to macroscopy, filtration, centrifugation and microscopy.

 Results: Findings reveals total prevalence of 37%. The prevalence in Taloka was higher (47%) than Goronyo (27%)(P<0.05). Males were found to be more infected (52%) than their females counterparts (12%). The age group 16-20 had the highest prevalence rate of 45% compared to age group 5-10 (34%). Fishermen had the highest prevalence rate of 71% while civil servants is least (14%).

Conclusion: Findings revealed that the source of water in the study area constitute an epidemiological threat  to public health. However, inhabitants of the communities should boil or treat water before consumption while we solicit for government intervention so that the control of the infestation can be achieved through the integration of complementary strategies such as disease surveillance, chemotherapy, health education, alternative water supplies and public sanitation in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hesitancy of Covid-19 Vaccination among Health Workers (other than Doctors) in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South, Nigeria

P. C. Oriji, D. O. Allagoa, T. J. Wagio, L. Obagah, E. S. Tekenah, S. E. Ozori

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 21-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i130207

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease of the respiratory system that is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation on the 11th of March, 2020.

Objective: To assess the reasons behind the low turnout of health workers (other than doctors) for COVID-19 vaccination in the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried out at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa between 1st and 23rd April, 2021. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 182 health workers (excluding doctors) from all departments/units in the hospital. The data were collected with a predesigned questionnaire, and were analysed using IBM SPSS 23.0 version.

Results: About three-quarter were females (74.7%), and close to half were aged ≤35 years (47.8%). The respondents were Nurses, Pharmacists, Medical laboratory scientists, and Non-clinical officers. Only 27.4% took the vaccine. Most of those who refused the vaccine did so because they wanted to see what would happen to those who received the vaccine (70.5%). Others felt the vaccine has not gone through enough clinical trials (62.1%).

Conclusion: In this study, there was very poor turnout of health workers for COVID-19 vaccination. The factors that influenced acceptance of the vaccine were mainly COVID-19 related features. These findings suggest that people who have had personal experiences with the disease have a better understanding of the gravity of the situation, and hence are more likely to accept vaccination against the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post Neonatal Tetanus as Seen in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: Prevalence, Clinical Profile and Outcome

Tamunoiyowuna Grace Okari, Boma Awoala West

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i130209

Background: Post neonatal tetanus, a vaccine preventable disease is a cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in many developing countries including Nigeria. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, clinical profile and outcome of children with post-neonatal tetanus.

Methods: This prospective observational study carried out over 3years in the Paediatric ward of the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, was among children older than 28days and up to 16years.

Result: Of 966 children admitted during the period of study, 12 had post-neonatal tetanus giving a prevalence of 1.2%. Six (50%) were > 10years old with a M:F ratio of 5:1, 5(41.7%) resided in rural areas and all (100%) were of low socioeconomic status. Six (50%) did not receive tetanus toxoid vaccine and no child had booster doses. Portal of entry for the infection was majorly via injuries on their limbs, 7(58.3%). The mean incubation period was 10.58±7.39 days while the mean onset interval was 31.58±27.85 hours. Three (25%) children had severe tetanus using Ablett’s classification with spasm 11(91.7%) documented as the commonest symptom. Half, 6(50%) of the children had autonomic complications and an overall case fatality rate of 25%.

Conclusion: The prevalence of post-neonatal tetanus in the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital was low being 1.2%, although unacceptable. The mortality rate of post-neonatal tetanus of 25% was high. Thus, there is a need to strengthen existing immunization program and immediately adopt the commencement of booster doses of tetanus toxoid vaccines for eligible children in Nigeria.

Open Access Short Communication

Transmission of COVID-19 in Public and Private Schools in Benghazi, Libya: 13th -28th February 2021

Naeima Houssein, Alsalihin Majeed, Emad Amkhatirha, Abdelghffar F. Abdelghffar, Asma Abubakr Mustafa, Houssain Ali

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 32-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i130208

The aim of the present study was to provide a national estimate for transmission of COVID-19 Cases in public and private schools in Benghazi city in the Eastern region of Libya. A multistage procedure was followed to obtain a representative sample of students and teaching staffs at randomly selected schools across the Eastern region of Libya. The resultant sample consisted of 101 schools, 808 students, and 202 staff members. Data were collected on age, sex, class, and symptoms of COVID19. Rapid antigen test was performed as a diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 to detect the presence of a viral antigen. Specimen was taken from the upper nasopharyngeal swab. Out of 808 students tested, 5 specimens were positive. Every positive rapid antigen test was further confirmed by PCR test.  All Specimens taken from staff members were negative. This survey highlights epidemiological concern on COVID-19 among students and staff members in school setting in Benghazi. Implementation and compliance with prevention measures are crucial.