Open Access Review Article

Emerging Aspects of Coxiella burnetii and Molecular Identification along with Treatment Approaches

Arslan Habib, Zeeshan Ashraf, Muhammad Nabeel, Dominic Kwesi Quainoo, Umutumwa Eric Principe, Naeem Ullah Khalil, Muhammad Rizwan Ullah, Bilal Khalid

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 33-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i230214

Q fever is an infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii which is an obligatory intracellular parasite. Globally Q fever is a widespread zoonosis. It is characterized by headaches, sudden fever and atypical pneumonia. In the rural environment, the main reservoir includes goats, sheep, cows, dogs, cats and rabbits. The main reservoir of this bacteria is considered domestic animals. They produce in a large number in amniotic fluid and placenta during childbirth. The main route of infection is inhalation. Q fever can cause both acute and chronic infection, mostly asymptomatic in humans and animals. Inactivated whole-cell bacteria vaccination strategy has been performed which provides effective outcomes in humans and animals but many side effects have been observed. The recombinant vaccine has been developed and provides many effective results in experimental conditions. One of the major challenges is the lack of accurate diagnosis facilities if it becomes possible, the prognosis of disease development can be reduced. Direct detection of bacteria is the accurate test for the diagnosis. Different procedures are involved in this method such as immunodetection, PCR amplification and shell vial cell culture. Due to the severe infectivity of C. burnetii all these procedures require a biosafety level 3 lab and qualified staff. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists to reduce its burden globally. The review discloses the Coxiella burnetii genome, the clinical manifestation of Q fever as well as emerging issues, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and future directions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Circulation and Characterization of Multi-resistant Bacteria at Omar Bongo Ondimba Army Instruction Hospital in Libreville

Thiery Ndong Mba, Anita Christel Elvire Mbongo-Kama, Cédric Sima Obiang, Rick Léonid Ngoua Meye Misso, Arnault Mafoumbi, Joseph Privat Ondo, Louis Clément Obame Engonga, Patrick Mickala, Edouard Nsi Emvo

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i230210

Multi-resistant bacteria (MRB) pose a global health problem. They lead to increased morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. The main objective of this study is to study the prevalence, circulation and characterization of multi-resistant bacteria.

This is a prospective cross-sectional study of 4 examinations. Bacterial identification was performed using Gram stains, oxidase, catalase, filamentation tests and the Api 20 STAPH, Api 20E systems. The assessment of sensitivity to antibiotics is based on the liquid diffusion method and on the ATB G, ATBTM-EU and ATBTM STAPH galleries previously soaked in antibiotics.

The most common multidrug resistant bacteria were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, MRSA and Acinetobacter baumanii. The number of multi-resistant bacteria from cytobacteriological urine examinations was 17, or 43.59% of all isolates. The prevalence of multi-resistant bacteria was 57.14% in blood cultures. In the collection of material from the hospital, the prevalence of multi-resistant strains was 72.73%. The prevalence of multi-resistant strains was 40% in the pus samples.

These results can help define the research perspectives and strategies to be developed to better control the emergence and spread of multi-resistant bacteria in the hospital environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Association between Nutritional Parameters and the Prognosis of Community Acquired Pneumonia

Hiba Mayya, Malek Hejazie, Youssef Zreik, Alkassem Alkhayer

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i230211

Background: Community–acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common potentially fatal infectious disease in adults worldwide. Prognosis depends on many factors including nutritional status. (P.S this research began before COVID19 pandemic arrivals to our country). 

Objective: The present study aims to assess the association between markers of nutritional status and severity of CAP.

Materials and Methods: This is observational descriptive study conducted in the Department of Pulmonology in Tishreen University Hospital –Lattakia- Syria from November 2019 to November 2020. Adult patients with the diagnosis of CAP were enrolled in the study.

Results: A total of 70 patients were included, Median age was 65 years, 40 (57.10%) were male. Serum albumin and cholesterol levels were lower in patients older than 65 years; (3.07±0.4 vs 3.5±0.5, p:0.001) and (135.2±33.2 vs 154.8±31.7, p: 0.01), respectively. Levels of albumin and cholesterol were significantly higher in survivors group; (3.6±0.4 vs. 2.7±0.3, p:0.001) and (158.3±23.9 vs. 120.3±35.08, p: 0.0001).

Pearson's correlation analysis revealed negative correlation between pneumonia severity index (PSI) and: serum albumin (r = -0.61, p:0.0001), cholesterol(r = -0.45, p:0.0001) and BMI (r = -0.16, p: 0.1). The CRP showed negative correlation with serum albumin (r = -0.55, p:0.0001), cholesterol (r = -0.51 ,p:0.0001) and BMI (r = -0.09, p: 0.4).

Conclusion: Serum albumin and cholesterol values were found to be related to the severity of CAP and initial levels may be a useful biomarkers to predict the outcome of patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence Rate of Vibrio cholerae and other Vibrio Species Isolated from Stool Samples in Andoni Community of Rivers State

C. A. Azike, V. N. Agi, E. G. Nwokah, C. K. Wachukwu, D. T. Chukwuemeka

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i230212

This study aims at determining the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae among the people of Andoni Local Government. One hundred stool samples were collected after administering well-structured questionnaire and were analysed with standard microbiological techniques which includes; macroscopy, microscopy, culture on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar, Gram staining and biochemical tests (indole, motility, catalase and oxidase tests). Results showed a prevalence of 30% of Vibrio cholerae. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was also isolated with a prevalence rate of 42%. Among the predisposing factors, the prevalence rate of vibrio species based on demographic data showed positive with 77.8% of those tested within the age range 11-15years, 80% of those tested within the age range 16-20years while 6-10years and 26-30years had 0%. Among the sexes, 78.2% of the females and 64.4% of males tested were positive. In the religion category, 75.8% positive among Christians tested and 33.3% among other religious groups tested. Based on educational qualification, the primary students 42.9% of those tested were positive, 85.2% for secondary and 0% among tertiary students. Among the occupational status, 83.3 of those doing business, 20% of civil servants, 73.3% of self-employed and 75% of students were positive among each category tested. Based on the different communities, 100% of those from Ajakajak, 100% from Apahia, 100% of those from Dema, 71.4% of those from Ibotirem, 66.7% of those from Udung-Ama and 0% of those from Ngo were positive among each category tested. Most of the cholera infection observed were because of a bad water source and contaminated sea food consumption

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Paper Currency Notes

Rikhi Ram Marasini, Pratikshya Shrestha, Prabhat Dhakal, Sukra Raj Shrestha, Sirjana Adhikari, Binita Koirala Sharma

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i230213

The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in paper currency. The paper currencies in circulation in Pokhara Metropolitan City were inspected. Bills of various denominations (Rs 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000) were collected from five different locations; namely Food and Vegetable Shop, Bus conductor, Hospital Pharmacy, Butcher Shop and Grocery Shop. Collected sample were cultured and incubated for 24 hours at 37 oC in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Broth. The inoculums were further cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) and Blood Agar (BA) media to obtain colonies, which were examined and evaluated for various parameters like gram staining and biochemical tests for identification. Then, antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates was performed using standard procedures. A total of 35 sample of paper currency were processed, all of which showed positive growth. Out of 86 total isolates, 21 (24.42%) were Staphylococcus aureus followed by Coagulase Negative Staphylococci 19 (22.09%), Diptheroids 14 (16.3%), Bacillus spp 13 (15.11%), Micrococci 9 (10.46%), Streptococcus pneumonia 4 (4.65%), Viridans Streptococcus 4 (4.65%) and Streptococcus pyogenes 2 (2.32%). The total prevalence of MRSA in this study was 7 (33.33%). Paper currency contaminated with MRSA poses a high threat to those handling the bills as well as the community. Thus, this study suggests proper hygiene measures to be adopted after handling of paper currency to minimize the risk of contamination and emergence of diseases.