Open Access Review Article

The Demographic Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Asia

Sumi Singh

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 6-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i330216

Brucellosis is also known as Undulant fever, Malta fever, rock fever, intermittent fever, Gibraltar fever, contagious abortion, Maltese fever, Crimean fever, or even Mediterranean fever. Clinical manifestations commonly encountered are fever and arthralgia. It has veterinary importance making it the leading cause of abortion and infertility in animals. Countries in which mixed agriculture is still the leading occupation have reported this disease in high number. The disease is common in areas where the mixed type of farming is still practiced, it is a type of farming where owners cohabit with their animals in the shed during the nighttime. The incidence of the disease is reported more in humans who have direct contact with the animal’s abortus fetus and reproductive secretions. A favorable environment is created for transmission when the healthy and infected animals are kept together free and are difficult to segregate. Diagnosis of the disease is done by isolation of the bacteria from the sample using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The disease was claimed to be eradicated but now as the global trend of infectious diseases is constantly changing it now appears to be a re-emergent disease. The best way to prevent the spread of the infection is through the One Health approach. Although brucellosis has been widely reported in animals and humans only a few studies have addressed the true prevalence of the disease in the context of Asia which is quite a challenge. It is unable to provide the true context of the disease. The case burden is more prevalent in the developing countries where it is found to be endemic in animals as well as in humans. Thus, this paper highlights the risk factors commonly found in Asian countries that are associated with increased prevalence of infection in humans which has now been believed to be involved many generations across the globe.

Countries in which mixed agriculture is still the leading occupation have reported this disease in high number. The disease is common in areas where the mixed type of farming is still practiced, it is a type of farming where owners cohabit with their animals in the shed during the nighttime. The incidence of the disease is reported more in humans who have direct contact with the animal’s abortus fetus and reproductive secretions. A favorable environment is created for transmission when the healthy and infected animals are kept together free and are difficult to segregate. Diagnosis of the disease is done by isolation of the bacteria from the sample using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The disease was claimed to be eradicated but now as the global trend of infectious diseases is constantly changing it appears to be a re-emergent disease. The best way to prevent the spread of the infection is through the One Health approach. Although brucellosis has been widely reported in animals and humans only a few studies have addressed the true prevalence of the disease in the context of Asia which is quite a challenge. It is unable to provide the true context of the disease. The case burden is more prevalent in the developing countries where it is found to be endemic in animals as well as in humans. Thus, this paper highlights the risk factors commonly found in Asian countries that are associated with increased prevalence of infection in humans which has now been believed to be involved many generations across the globe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of pfmdr-1 Polymorphisms and Parasites’ Population Diversity in Children with Acute Uncomplicated Malaria 5 Years Post-Adoption of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies

Olundu Peter Segun, Awotidebe-Moshood Obafemi, Abdul-Azeez Abdul-Rahman

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i330217

Mutatons on pfmdr1 gene have been implicated in drug resistance to chloroquine and the partner drugs in artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), hence the need to evaluate the impact of ACTs five years after its adoption in Nigeria on pfmdr1 polymorphisms and parasite diversity. Parasite genomic DNA was isolated from children below 5 years in Ibadan in 2010. Nested PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) detected pfmdr1 Y86, F184 and Y1246 mutant alleles were present in 27%, 56% and 48% of the isolates respectively, while nested PCR evaluated polymorphic regions of MSP-1, MSP-2 and GLURP genes and monoclonal infections were observed in 81.6%, 51.6% and 5.6% with multiplicity of infection being 1.8, 2.0 and 2.4 respectively. This study showed a relative decline in the prevalence of Y86, F184 and Y1246 mutant alleles, but no significant change in the parasite population diversity of P.falciparum in children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Spread of COVID-19 in Nigeria: The Influence of Transportation and Economic Zones

Nathaniel O. Ajayi, Richard O. Awonusika, Adeniyi S. Ale, Ayooluwade Ebiwonjumi

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i330218

The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) now known as Covid-19 was first detected in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease rapidly spread to other cities in China and to other parts of the world. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution which the economic zones and movement of people into the country and from city to city and State to State within the country have on the spread of the disease in Nigeria. Data of the daily update of Covid-19 occurrence in Nigeria as given by the NCDC Covid-19 Situation report were assembled. The data of the first index in each State between February 27 and March 28, 2020 with the status of whether they were from foreign travel or from within the community was compiled. The results show that economic zones and human movement contribute to the early spread of the disease. The initial spatial spread in Nigeria was observed to follow closely behind the test laboratory distribution pattern. This may suggest that samples from the locations far from the laboratories were not obtained, hence the suggestion for early aggressive country-wide-large scale testing to cover almost everyone should be started very early before the spread is everywhere. The test labs should cover the whole country with the tests made free and mandatory to encourage and force people to come out for it and the restriction protocols should strictly be adhered to. The boarders of the country should be closed early to stop further import of the disease from the high risk countries. When the airports are later re-opened, they should not be to the high-risk countries of the disease. There is also a need for a national policy on responding to and managing any future public health crisis such as Covid-19 pandemic before its occurrence. This policy will help the government to know what to start doing quickly when there is any occurrence. Government should also look inward to mobilize the scientists inside the country by providing research grants purposely to combat the pandemic. Such grants will enable our scientists to make their contribution in addition to the ones made by the scientists outside the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the « Time/Risk » Probability of being Infected and its Evolution Before/After a Long Term Village Scale Malaria Vector Control Programme in Angola

P. Carnevale, N. Carnevale, G. Carnevale

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 36-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i330219

Three main entomological indicators are classically used in the epidemiology of malaria: the inoculation rate (“h”) of Ross, the vectorial capacity (“C”) of Garrett-Jones and the reproduction rate (“z”) of Macdonald. In spite of their undoubtfully usefulness it appeared that their formulae did not integrate the key parameter of “t” i.e. the time of exposure and therefore the probabilities of being infected according to the entomological condition (density, infectivity, longevity of the vectors) but also the time/risk and the reduction of this risk when some village-scale vector control measures are implemented.

To deal with this approach we used the Briley’s formula, elaborated some years ago, to analyze the time/risk of being infected in the framework of a long term village scale vector control programme implemented around Balombo (Benguela Province, Angola) with classical method (inside residual spraying) and newly developed tool s (insecticide treated plastic sheeting) used alone or in association with the classical long lasting insecticide treated nets.

Before vector control the risk was almost 20% in one week, 60% in one month and 100% in 3 months and this explain why plasmodic index are so high in this area without any organized vector control programme.

The 3 methods actually reduced the risks which become of the order of 2% in one week, 10% in one month, 26% in one trimester but 70% in one year; the three methods had the same efficacy in reducing these risks. The fact that the risk reach 70% in one year even with right vector control shows the needs of renewing regularly the operations, the needs of other than entomological methods of prevention but also that immunity could be maintained and feared “rebound” was not observed even during the long term of the programme.

Open Access Case Study

Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infection in Pregnancy Causing Acute Hepatitis, Fatal Postpartum Hemorrhage and Possible Vertical Transmission

R. M. C. J. Ratnayake, W. M. M. P. B. Wanasinghe, P. Dissanayake, S. A. M. Kularatne, M. V. G. Pinto, T. M. K. Jayasinghearachchi, R. P. V. J. Rajapakse

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i330215

We present a rare case of a 31-year-old pregnant mother in 37 weeks of gestation who presented with a 3-day history of vomiting, epigastric pain, and icterus, subsequently diagnosed as a rickettsial disease in pregnancy (with positive IgG titer for SFG) complicated with hepatitis, coagulopathy, pulmonary hemorrhage, and post-partum hemorrhage, who expired despite intensive care management. The newborn baby also had high IgG titer for SFG suggesting a vertical transmission of the disease and recovered following treatment with chloramphenicol. The SFG rickettsial infection can cause diverse clinical manifestations in pregnancy including acute hepatitis and coagulopathy. Therefore, the possibility of SFG rickettsial infection needs to be considered in diagnostic workup in obscure clinical presentations. We postulate possible vertical transmission of SFG to newborns which needs further confirmation.