Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Specialist Hospital Yola, Adamawa State Nigeria

Halima Isa, Mohammed Bashir, Mohammed Bilyaminu

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i430221

Aims: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Specialist Hospital Yola.

Study Design:  The prevalence of Hepatitis C was ascertained among pregnant women attending antenatal care in specialist hospital Yola, Adamawa State. Anti HcV antibody in the serum of the pregnant women was detected using a sandwich rapid diagnostic chromatographic test strip. Questioner was used to obtain the demographic data of the pregnant women.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Specialist Hospital Yola where the samples were collected. Samples were processed and the analysis carried out at Microbiology Laboratory of Modibbo Adama University Yola. The study was conducted in March to June of 2021.

Methodology: 251 consenting pregnant women of varying age and family background were enrolled in the study, where 15 were randomly selected using a systematic random sampling technique on each antenatal visit.

Results: The prevalence of HcV in this study was 5.18% and the highest prevalence was found among age group 21-25years with 1.59% and the lowest among the age group 36 and above with 0.39%. Base on type of family, HcV was found to be higher in those from monogamous families (3.59%). Hcv Prevalence was also found to be high among those women who fall in the group ‘’others’’ which comprises of school dropped out and non-educated (1.59%). Participants with tribal marks, those no history of blood transfusion and intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) also showed high prevalence of the virus with percentage prevalence of 3.19%, 3.98% and 3.98% respectively.  The study revealed that  HCV infection is not significantly associated with age and family type (P value > .05) but significantly associated with educational status, possession of tribal mark/tattoo, history of blood transfusion, and drug abuse  (P value < .05).

Conclusion: HCV prevalence is low among pregnant women attending Specialist Hospital in Yola, Adamawa state Nigeria for antenatal care. Also, the percentage prevalence observed worldwide is within the range of 1.0-8.0%. However, there are other local governments areas with a dense population that may produce a major difference with the result obtained in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Positivity and Sensitivity in Invasive Bloodstream Infections Using Automated Bactec in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of North India

Pankaj Katoch, Vipin Roach

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 15-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i430222

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most commonly encountered gram-negative aerobic bacilli in the differential diagnosis of several probable hospital-acquired infections. Hence, the present study is designed to determine the Pseudomonas positivity and sensitivity in Invasive bloodstream infections using automated Bactec systems as the Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiles differ from one clinical setting to another.

Material and Methods: All the blood culture samples received in the Department of Microbiology for culture by Bactec Bd fx from July 2015 to June 2016 were included in the study. The blood culture was observed in the Bactec bd fx system for at least 5 days before they are reported as sterile.

Results: Among the total 1275 cultures which were positive for bacteria, 931(73.02%) were positive for gram-negative bacteria. Among the total of 931culture which were positive for gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in 120(12.89%) cultures. Maximum was found in the age group of 0-1 years 33(27.50%) followed by 19-45 years 26(21.67%). Pseudomonas spp isolates were 100.00% sensitive to Colistin followed by Levofloxacin 84.44%, Piperacillin Tazobactum 82.50%, PB 77.50%, Amikacin 75.00%, Cefepime 75.00% while Pseudomonas spp isolates were 90% resistant to Ampicillin followed by Ceftazidime clavulanic acid 82.64% and Aztreonam 70.31%.

Conclusion: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common organisms among Gram-Negative isolates and the most commonly isolated in the neonate and infant age group. All the Pseudomonas isolates showed maximum sensitivity to Colistin followed by Levofloxacin, Piperacillin Tazobactum, Amikacin while they were most resistant to Ampicillin followed by Ceftazidime clavulanic acid and Aztreonam. Some alternative novel techniques need to be developed to counter the increasing menace of antibiotic resistance in this particular pathogenic bacteria

Open Access Original Research Article

Co-Evolution of the Presence of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets and Plasmodium falciparum Welch, 1897 Prevalence in Cahata Village (Benguela Province, Angola) during a Village Scale Long-Term of Malaria Vector Control Program

P. Carnevale, J. C. Toto, V. Foumane, S. Carnevale, F. Gay

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 21-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i430223

A long term village scale vector control programme was implemented since 2007 in 8 villages around Balombo town (Benguela Province) to compare the efficacy of 4 methods of vector control (1,2). One of them are deltamethrin treated Long Lasting Nets (“LLIN”) “Perma©Net 2.0” with a complete coverage of every sleeping units in 2008 in 2 villages, Caala and Cahata. Cahata was surveyed for 10 years with regular parasitological cross sectional parasitological surveys. During the 3 years following LLIN implementation, a check of their actual usage in every house, or on sleeping units of each patient examined during every parasitological surveys showed that 3 years after the full LLIN distribution less than 50% were still in use, and this percentage regularly decreased to reach 10% and less in 2015 (with 0% during the survey done in October 2005). But Plasmodium falciparum prevalence still decreased with low level until 2014 then it started (slightly) increasing in 2015, and the following years, which correspond to both the National malaria outbreak and the least percentage of LLIN used! But even at that time the plasmodial load was significantly lower in “LLIN users” than in non users showing some maintained personal protection.

Even 10 years after the full coverage in LLIN no rebound effect was actually noticed in such natural conditions of life and plasmodial prevalence was even 2 times lower than before the implementation of vector control.

Information gained were of great importance for the National Malaria Control program in term of nets replacement with 50% missing in 3 years underlining the need of “stronger” nets and community sensitization for the sustainability of positive results gained with LLIN.

Open Access Case Study

Postoperative Pernicious Malarial Crisis in Patient Coming Back from an Endemic Area

Said Khallikane, Rachid Seddiki, Issam Serghini, Youssef Qamouss, Hassan Alaoui, Mohamed Boughalem

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 33-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i430224

The case of a young Moroccan doctor who spent Four months in Congo as part of an international humanitarian military mission; he underwent surgery under spinal anesthesia for an anal fissure a week after being returned to Morocco, In the seventh-day postoperative period, acute renal failure with anuria set in, justifying the patient's transfer to an intensive care unit. Upon admission, on the eighth postoperative day, one day after readmission to the emergency room and was put on triple antibiotic therapy ,and  liquid resuscitation was carried out immediately by infusion of saline isotonic solution and due to the non-improvement of the hemodynamic state after volume repletion, a vasoactive support was rapidly introduced at the initial dose of 0.2 ug / kg / min, the intravenous quinine was not immediately introduced in the emergency room because the initial thick, thin film and malaria blood smear carried out on  admission were negative and the postoperative clinical context argued in favor of bacterial septic shock. A sepsis context not ruled out (blood cultures performed); a surgical revision the morning of his admission to the intensive care by under umbilical laparotomy, didn’t showed an intra-abdominal collection. Parallelly a thick film (30% of parasitized red blood cells) revealing P. falciparum, and blood smear were performed again and came back positive after a positive malaria antigen detection of specific IgMs in the indirect immunofluorescence, confirming the diagnosis. The mode of infection; is associated with the end of chemoprophylaxis rigorously followed up till Finally, the possibility of pernicious malaria aggravating the initial acute renal failure and hipocalcemia is also discussed.

Open Access Case Report

Toxoplasma Pericarditis in an Immunocompetent Child- A Rare Case Report

Pallavi Punhani, Neha Madan, Satnam Kaur, Sunil Ranga

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v7i430220

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii which is an obligate intracellular parasite. Among all the parasites known to cause myocarditis or pericarditis, the most commonly found is Chaga’s Disease or American Trypanosomiasis. Several other parasites including T. gondii can affect the heart in immunocompromised patients. Individuals with intact immunity largely remain asymptomatic. Only 22 cases of Toxoplasma Pericarditis have been reported worldwide.

Although, CNS and Ocular Toxoplasmosis cases have been reported from Indian subcontinent, there is a lack of literature on cardiac involvement by Toxoplasma. Here, we present a case of a   11 yr old immunocompetent child with Toxoplasma Pericarditis, the first case to be reported from India. An echocardiography confirmed diagnosis of pericardial effusion for which pericardiocentesis was done and sent to our department for cytological evaluation. Fluid was exudative with pericardial fluid to serum protein ratio of 0.7. Gram stain, AFB stain and CB NAAT of pericardial fluid were negative. Cytology revealed neutrophils and macrophages showing presence of intracellular organisms resembling tachyzoites of Toxoplasma species on the Giemsa stained smear. These tachyzoites were crescent shaped with one pointed end and the other rounded end and a central nuclei.

A final diagnosis of Toxoplasma Pericarditis was made based on microscopy findings.  T. gondii serological tests were also done which showed positivity for IgG with strong avidity. Thus, our case report represents an important differential that should be considered by all the clinicians in cases of acute pericarditis, especially in difficult cases where no other cause can be identified.