Open Access Original Research Article

Experience of Loneliness and Social Support during COVID-19 Confinement: A Nation-wide self-Assessment among Undergraduates of Nepal

Kushalata Baral, Maginsh Dahal, Sudip Khanal, Poonam Subedi, Kabita Pathak, Akriti Kafle, Pratikshya Gurung

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i130227

In the account of the social nature of human beings, the given difficult circumstance due to COVID-19 may call upon social loneliness, emotional loneliness, and moreover, lack of perceived social support. We aim to elucidate by assessing the level of loneliness and the level of social support perceived by college students amidst the COVID-19 lockdown. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 970 Nepalese undergraduate students. Responses were extracted, cleaned, and analyzed with the help of R-studio (version 1.2.5033). Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation described participants’ demographic characteristics. Karl Pearson’s Correlation analysis and significant test of correlation for loneliness, social support, and their various subscales, respectively were significant at 0.1%, 1%, and 5% level of significance. The mean age of respondents was 22.2 years (SD =2.74). Significant correlations were observed among social loneliness, emotional loneliness, overall loneliness (social loneliness and emotional loneliness combined), social family support, social friends support, social significant others support, and total social support (that is to say, all the social support subscales). The study reported that a decrease in social support leads to an increase in loneliness. Likewise, a decrease in social support from family, friends, and from significant others can increase emotional and overall loneliness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Community Acquired Pneumonia Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae versus Non-Mycoplasma Pneumoniae: A Comparative Analysis from a Tertiary Care Hospital

Chhavi Gandhi, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay, Kiran Chawla, Rama Chaudhry

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i130228

Aims: The study aims to compare the clinical and microbiological profile in adult, hospitalised patients of community acquired pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) vs other bacterial agents.

Study Design: Prospective, observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out in Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal in a span of eighteen months (August 2014 to February 2016).

Methodology:   A Hospital based study in a tertiary care center was conducted. Adult hospitalised patients suspected of community acquired pneumonia (according to IDSA guidelines) were included in the study. Cases with immunosuppression and prior hospital admission were excluded. Respiratory samples were collected and cultured for all the studied cases. PCR was performed for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by targeting P1 gene.

Results: The study cases (n=140) had mean age of 57 years and mean hospital stay of 7 days, comprising 67.6%  males and 32.4% females. Amongst all the cases of CAP that were included in the study, Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected in 23(16.4%) cases with 12 (52.2%) cases due to MP alone and 11 cases (47.8%) had multiple bacterial etiology. Symptoms such as chest pain (91.7%), joint pains (45.8%), earache (41.7%) and sepsis (56.5%) were significantly higher (p<0.005) when Mycoplasma pneumonia was the detected pathogen. Moreover worsening of clinical condition and mortality was also observed higher in this group.

Conclusion: Association of higher morbidity and mortality, as observed in current study, highlights the importance of early and timely diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Knowledge and Practices of Ayurvedic Preventive Measures for Respiratory Tract Infections

B. L. Edirisinghe, W. M. S. S. K. Kulathunga

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i130229

Respiratory diseases have become world health burden. It has been estimated that 65 million people have moderate severe chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases from which about 3 million die each year. Objective of this survey study was to assess knowledge and practice of Intern medical officers on Ayurvedic preventive measures for managing respiratory tract infectious diseases. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among the Intern Medical Officers during their training program. 85 respondents out of 150 were assessed for their knowledge and practices on Ayurvedic preventive measures for Respiratory tract infections by using pre-structured questionnaire. Among the sampled students, most of them were female 92.9% (79) and unmarried 51.8% (44). The mean age and the standard deviation of the respondents were 28.25 + 0.815 years. There were 41(48.2%) Intern medical students with good knowledge, 42(49.4%) were with satisfactory knowledge and 2.4% of the study group was having the little knowledge. Most of the respondents 56(65.9%) were doing good practice on preventing RTI and 29 (34.1%) respondents were doing bad practice. Overall the respondents have good practice on prevention of RTI with the mean score of 19.9 + 2.589.

Open Access Opinion Article

An Experiment that May Resolve Many Disputes Over HIV Transmission

Jiman He

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 8-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i130226

The present paper proposes an experiment that may resolve many controversial issues regarding HIV transmission and prevention: Compare HIV prevalence between mothers of HIV positive and HIV negative women ages 15-19 who attended antenatal clinics in SSA. For example, HIV prevention guidelines contradict each other over whether or not exposure of oral mucosa to HIV contaminated blood is a risk for transmission. The proposed experiment could result in a direct data that allow us know the flaw in our current prevention strategy, and offer insights into why our prevention of HIV has failed.

Open Access Short Research Article

Potential Bat-like Rotavirus in Hospitalized Children with Diarrhea from the Dominican Republic

Lurys Bourdett-Stanziola, Edwing Centeno, Johan Nordgren, Armando A. Durant-Archibold, Eduardo Ortega-Barria, Filemón Bucardo

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i130225

Interspecies transmission is an important aspect of rotavirus evolution and is enhanced by the close contact between humans and animals. The role of bats as a reservoir or intermediary host for viruses associated with human gastroenteritis is poorly understood, but there are reports of rotaviruses detected in humans that contain genes from bat rotavirus. In this study, a total of 15 rotavirus positive samples from children hospitalized for gastroenteritis in 2007 in the Dominican Republic were investigated by sequencing of the capsid VP4, VP7 and VP6 genes to identify genetic variants. The most common genotypes were G1-P[8]-I1, G3-P[6]-I2 and G12-P[8]-I1. Interestingly, 3 of the 15 sequenced strains had VP7 encoding genes highly similar (≥97%) to those of bat rotaviruses of the G3 genotype detected in Bulgaria in 2008. These VP7 sequences were more distantly related (≤92%) to other G3 rotavirus found in bat, human, rabbit, pigs, rat and monkeys.  Only 1 VP4 sequence was available from the bat-like rotavirus yielding genotype P[6]. This and other identified P [6] sequences were more related to human than to porcine derived P[6] sequences. Furthermore, 4 of 10 available VP6 sequences, including the 3 from the G3 bat-like strains, showed high nucleotide identity (>97%) with VP6 of I2 genotype from bat rotavirus detected in Kenya in 2015. A novel observation was the finding of 4 children of ≥1 year of age hospitalized with gastroenteritis and infected with bat-like rotavirus. This study extends previous knowledge on rotavirus interspecies transmission and warrants future rotavirus studies on bats and children from Dominican.