Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 and Hypertension: A Mini-Review of Their Mutual Effect

Udaya Ralapanawa

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i230232

Cases of Coronavirus disease are rapidly increasing across the world. Hypertension is the commonest co-morbidity among COVID-19 infected patients and hypertension is one of the determinants of severity of COVID-19.COVID -19 virus uses ACE-2 as an entry receptor and ACE-2 plays a vital role in blood pressure control in an individual. Certain antihypertensive medications may affect ACE-2 level and hence COVID-19 pathogenesis. At present, while the worlds focus is on the COVID-19, there is a danger that management of other illnesses like hypertension might be overlooked. It is highly recommended to take antihypertensive medications as directed and following healthy lifestyle practices like regular exercise, consuming low salt heart-healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight and reducing stress, and practicing mindfulness even during this pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simulations of Infectious Disease Propagation II, Focusing on Herd Immunity

William J. B. Oldham

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i230230

Introduction and Objectives: The results of simulations of the propagation of an infectious disease are presented. In managing and controlling the spread of an infectious disease, such as Covid-19, the concept of Herd Immunity (HI) is often invoked as to when the disease’s propagation will dwindle to acceptable levels. We have extended a previous work with explicit attention on the usefulness of this concept. The objectives of this research was to track the propagation of an infectious disease as a function of population density, time, and to evaluate HI. The population was divided into two groups. One group was protected from the infection. The second group was unprotected. The results are given as a percentage of the unprotected population that is infected as a function of time.

Methods: The method used here was to use computer simulation on a person level to follow the progress of the diseases infection across the population. In the beginning, the people are uniformly distributed in a square. Each person performed a random walk, which simulated the movement of the people. Infection rates are given for the unprotected portion of the population as a function of time. The disease was transferred from an infected person to an uninfected person if the two people are closer together than a given distance.

Results and Discussion: These simulations show the unprotected portion of the population was at total risk if proper measures are not taken early. For 400 unprotected people the infection rate is 100% after approximately 100,000 iterations. We give the results from one dual simulation in which protection was afforded for a significant part of the population and carried out until all of the unprotected were infected. In the second part the protection was lifted to see how fast the total population was infected. For the case of 50% protected it took 400,000 iterations to infect the unprotected people. After the restrictions were lifted it took 150,000 to infect the other half. The simulations here were people based which has the advantage of seeing individual personal involvement. Results of infection rates were calculated for 1,000, 2,500, 5,000, and 10,000 people.

Conclusions: The propagation of the disease can be fast and depends on population density. Protection is vital to containing the disease. Restrictions must be lifted carefully and slowly or the total population is again at risk. According to the results obtained here the concept of HI is not a viable concept in controlling or managing the spread of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern Isolated from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dhaka City

Mousumi Karmaker, Md. Abul Khair, Una Jessica Sarker, Rabeya Nahar Ferdous, Sa’dia Tasnim, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Shah Md. Zahurul Haque Asna

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i230233

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most widespread gram-negative microorganisms identified in the clinical samples and most common causes of hospital acquired infection. P. aeruginosa is affecting both indoor and outdoor patients throughout the world. Due to frequent mutation in          P. aeruginosa highly resistant strain developed rapidly. The aim of the study to determine the prevalence of P. aeruginosa species in different samples isolated from a Tertiary care Hospital as well as determination their diverse antibiotic resistance pattern. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine in-vitro resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa isolates to common antimicrobial agents by disc diffusion method. Various clinical samples were collected from Bangladesh Health Sciences Hospital (BIHS) General Hospital, Dhaka. This research was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS). Isolation, identification and antibiogram were performed for P. aeruginosa following standard microbiological laboratory procedure. A total of 218 P. aeruginosa were isolated from 3062 different clinical specimens which are statistically significant (p<0.0001). Among the highest number of P. aeruginosa were isolated from outdoor patients 140 compare to Indoor patients which are significantly higher (p <0.013). In this study Male (68.3%) are more vulnerable to P. aeruginosa infection compare to females (31.7%) which is also statistically significant. Young people (less than 35 years) were more susceptible to P. aeruginosa infection which is also statistically significant (p< 0.01). The highest number of P. aeruginosa was isolated from wound (43.12%), followed by pus (40.33%), sputum (8.71%) urine (7.80%). The maximum number of P. aeruginosa in various samples was resistant to aztreonam and co-tromoxazole followed by cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, carbapenems. The most sensitive antibiotic was colistin of followed by gentamycin and tetracycline. To control the spread of resistant bacteria, it is disparagingly vital to have stringent antibiotic guidelines. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of P. aeruginosa requires to be continuously monitored in specialized clinical units and the results readily made available to the clinicians to minimize the resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Changes in the Reproduction Number of COVID-19 in Cameroon

Solange Whegang Youdom, Djam Chefor Alain, Charles Kouanfack

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i230234

Aim: The purpose of this work is to assess changes that occur on COVID-19 infection in Cameroon since the start of the epidemic.

Study Design: We use a data-based analysis on longitudinal data of reported COVID-19 cases in Cameroon.

Place and Duration: The data for the study were obtained from the reports of confirmed COVID-19 cases from an official website between March 7, 2020 to September 29, 2021.

Methodology: A modified Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Deceased (SIRD) model for the contagion was used to describe the cumulated cases of COVID-19 during different phases of the epidemic that correlated with highest spikes. The approach features several aspects: one is that model parameters can be time-varying, allowing us to capture possible changes of the epidemic behaviour, due for example to containment measures enforced by authorities or modifications of the epidemic characteristics, country events, and COVID-19 vaccine introduction; the second aspect is that the model accounts for a social distancing parameter. The time-varying parameters was handled using a phase-to-phase modelling in which initial parameters were the number of susceptible individuals at the end of each phase. In addition, daily incidence data were used to estimate daily reproduction number. Secondly, we used an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) approach to analyse the dynamic of the effective reproduction number R and forecast the new number of infected contacts.

Results: There was less than 54% compliance of social distancing during all phases. The reproduction number was above 1 during each phase of the analysis. As of September 2021, it was 2.43 suggesting a constant increase of infection.   Time-series of the reproduction number was unseasonal and stationary. Forecasting of R gave a value of more than 2, suggesting a continued rise in the number of infected cases in the Country in the next coming months.

Conclusion: It is uncertain when the pandemic will last in the country. While social distancing is in decrease, prevention through vaccination is an option to reach more people and stop the propagation of the disease.

Open Access Case Study

Visceral Larva Migrans: A Rare Encounter by a Cytologist

Neeti Nagar, Neha K. Madan, Richa Mittal, Pradeep Kumar Debata, Sunil Ranga

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 9-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i230231

VLM is a zoonotic disease caused by the migration of third-stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. Among various etiological agents such as Baylisascaris procyonis, Capillaria hepaticaAscaris sum, and some Ancylostoma speciesToxocara is a major cause of VLM. Poor hygiene, contact with dogs and geophagia increases the risk of toxocariasis.Young adults and children who are in close contact with animals are at a higher risk. Here we present a case of 7 years male child presenting with fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. The clinical presentation, biochemical and radiological findings supported the diagnosis of VLM which was corroborated in the cytological examination. Here we report a rarest encounter of VLM in the cytology smear.