Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria Co – Infection with Urinary Schistosomiasis, Typhoid Fever, Hepatitis B Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) Virus among Students in Three Local Government Areas of Ekiti State, South Western Nigeria

C. A. Ologunde, F. T. Akinruli, T. O. Layo-Akingbade

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430242

Introduction: Malaria, Typhoid fever, urinary schistosomiasis, AIDS and hepatitis B virus disease are major public health problems in the tropical and subtropical countries; they exert a huge burden of morbidity, mortality and economic loss on the populace.

Aims: The study investigates the prevalence of co–infection of malaria, typhoid fever, urinary schistosomiasis, hepatitis B virus and HIV virus among 306 students between the ages of 10- 21 years in three local government areas of Ekiti – state Nigeria.

Methodology: Blood samples were randomly collected for the examination of malaria parasites, typhoid fever, hepatitis B virus and HIV virus while urine examination was done for urinary schistosomiasis by random sampling and survey for a period one week.

Results: The results show that the overall prevalence of malaria, typhoid fever, urinary schistosomiasis and hepatitis B virus were 42.2%, 2.9%, 2.9% and 2.9% respectively. The female students had the highest prevalence of single infection with malaria fever having the highest figure (42.2%). Malaria and Urinary schistosomiasis had the highest prevalence of double infection of 2.3 %, while schistosomiasis and hepatitis B had the lowest prevalence of 0.3%. Also, male students had the highest prevalence of double and triple infections. The co-infection rate of malaria, urinary Schistosomiasis and hepatitis B was 0.3% and this occurred in male between the ages of 19-21 years, none of the students tested positive for HIV virus and therefore no students was found in the quaternaries.

Conclusion: Co-infections is prevalent in this study area, therefore there should be integrated control approach directed against these diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practices on Prevention of COVID-19 among Traditional Medical Practitioners in Sri Lanka

A. B. Dharmarathna, W. M. S. S. K. Kulathunga

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 22-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430245

Introduction: An outbreak of pneumonia of unknown reason was named as COVID-19 by WHO and declared as pandemic. It was observed as most people infected with the COVID-19 virus is mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without getting treatment. Older people with chronic diseases are more likely to develop serious illness. There is no effective modern medicine available so far for the treatment of COVID-19.

Objectives: To assess the Knowledge on prevention of COVID-19 Epidemic in among the Traditional Doctors.

Methodology: Descriptive study was conducted among the 20 Traditional Practitionerson Knowledge and prevention of Corona Epidemic by purposively selected, open ended questionnaire that used a 5-point Likert scale for the response option. Recoding in to different variable and Analysis each question. According to that frequency distribution as 1-3 responses in to1 - Inadequate knowledge 4-5 responses in to 2- Adequate knowledge. The questionnaire included socio demographic characteristics, questions regarding the Knowledge and prevention of Corona Epidemic (Q1 toQ10). SPSS Software (16 version) used for Statistical analyzing. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, mean mode, Slandered deviation and percentage were used to describe variables.

Results: According to the present study mean age was 49.6+1.2737(SD). Considering all the questions Q1 to Q10 Adequate knowledge vary in 50 -80% and Inadequate knowledge vary in 15-50%. In our study 80% of them were mentioned that corona infection was mainly affected to the respiratory tract, most common symptoms were sore throat in 70%, transmission of the Corona infection through air 50%, reduce social distance less than one meter 80% was the main cause for the infection transmission through the society, the precautions for prevent the corona infection through the society that Keeping social distance more than one meter in 85%, The advises given by them in the management lived separately from others until cure the diseases in 45%,The treatment protocol followed them in the treatment Administration of immunity enhancement drugs 30%, wholesome foods and behaviors suitable for corona infection were reducing Kaphadosha (one of the body humor) 35%.

Conclusion: In the present study Considering all the questions Q1 to Q10 most of them have adequate knowledge. Although they were not expressed much details of the treatment protocol in the management. It is recommended that further large scale studies are needed to confirm the knowledge and Prevention of Corona epidemic.

Open Access Minireview Article

Vaccine Hesitancy: In the Age of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Mohammad Jahidur Rahman Khan, Samshad Jahan Shumu, Farzana Mim, Md. Selim Reza

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430243

Vaccines are one of the most significant innovations of modern science. Worldwide, millions of lives are saved each year by the vaccine. Vaccine hesitancy, which represents the refusal to receive vaccines when vaccination services are available and reachable, is a major obstacle to global health. While vaccine hesitancy has been present for many years, its damaging effects are likely to be more evident during the COVID-19 pandemic than ever before. This study aimed to find out common causes of vaccine hesitancy, assess COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rates worldwide, and present the approaches by which vaccine hesitancy rate can be reduced. This study revealed though vaccine hesitancy is a worldwide phenomenon, the causes differ from country to country or reign. More studies are needed to address COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, especially in the Middle and South America, the Middle East and North Africa, Central Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe. The leading causes of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy are found lack of confidence towards the government or pharmaceutical companies, less concern about the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and shortage of supply of different types of COVID-19 vaccines. Healthcare personnel and social media play an essential role in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Convincing the general population about the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines, the consequence of being unvaccinated, and the delivery of free vaccines in an easily accessible way can reduce vaccine hesitancy rate.

Open Access Opinion Article

An Opinion on Mosquitoes’ Role in HIV Transmission

Jiman He

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 37-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430246

The concept that mosquitos do not transmit HIV was established in the 1980s. The present paper examined the early studies used in formulating the concept, and showed there were significant problems with the studies. The present paper demonstrates a consistent correlation between mosquitoes and HIV over a broad range of data worldwide, and suggested that, mosquitoes are a significant risk factor in HIV transmission.

Open Access Case Study

Giant Bilateral Angiomyolipoma Associated with Tuberous Sclerosis of Bourneville: Exceptional Case and Therapeutic Dilemma

Benatta Mahmoud

Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, Page 17-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430244

Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a mesenchymal tumour composed of variable proportions of adipose tissue and vascular and smooth muscle elements. It can cause potentially life-threatening complications.

This report aims to describe a bilateral angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis of Bourneville; the second aim is to discuss the treatment modalities of this disease.

A 51-year-old woman with abdominal mass and characteristic triad: Epilepsy, mental retardation and skin lesions (adenoma) (Fig. 1), with no notion of hematuria or abdominal pain, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showing bilateral renal masses of 28.4×17 cm on the left kidney and 22× 11.7 cm on the right, respectively (Fig. 2-3). Serum creatinine was 13.4g/l.

Body-scan imaging finds cardiac rhabdomyoma (Fig. 4) and brain calcifications (Fig. 5). the patient underwent surveillance with scan imaging every month, and at the last control, she was asymptomatic, serum creatinine was still normal. The management of giant bilateral AML is a complex and multifactorial decision. Patients can knowingly choose an active surveillance program, even with giant AML, but the economic situation and mental status can limit the therapeutic choice.